BACKGROUND Studies have shown that gene and environmental factors, such as BRCA1/2 mutations, ionized radiation, and chemical carcinogens, are related with breast cancer. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is involved in homologous repair of double DNA breaks. It was reported that Thr241Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC3 is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. However, the finding remains controversial. The current meta-analysis aims to determine whether XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. Crude odds ratios (ORs) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in dominant, recessive, and homozygote models. RESULTS We included 23 studies consisting of 13513 cases and 14100 controls in our study. For meta-analysis on the entire database, association of the SNP and breast cancer risk was observed in recessive (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, p=0.005) and homozygote (OR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18, p=0.023) models. For the analysis on the Asian population subgroup, association of the SNP and breast cancer risk was also observed in recessive (OR=1.615, 95% CI: 1.17-2.228, p=0.004) and homozygote (OR=1.609, 95% CI: 1.154-2.241, p=0.005) models. For the evaluation of the patients without family history of breast cancer, association of the SNP and breast cancer risk was observed in dominant (OR=1.364, 95% CI: 1.096-1.698, p=0.005), recessive (OR=1.336, 95% CI: 0.999-1.788, p=0.051) and homozygote (OR=1.492, 95% CI: 1.085-2.051, p=0.014) models. CONCLUSIONS We can conclude that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk, especially in Asian populations and in patients without family history of breast cancer.