Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence

@article{Gage2016AssociationBC,
  title={Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence},
  author={Suzanne H. Gage and Matthew Hickman and Stanley Zammit},
  journal={Biological Psychiatry},
  year={2016},
  volume={79},
  pages={549-556}
}
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TLDR
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TLDR
A systematic review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on the onset and course of psychoses found that cannabis use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of developing psychotic illness, and cannabis users have an earlier onset of psychotic illness compared to non-users.
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TLDR
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Purpose While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining cannabis with
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Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study
TLDR
Evidence is found that cannabis initiation increases the risk of schizophrenia, although the size of the causal estimate is small, and stronger evidence that schizophrenia risk predicts cannabis initiation, possibly as genetic instruments for schizophrenia are stronger than for cannabis initiation.
Examining pathways between genetic liability for schizophrenia and patterns of tobacco and cannabis use in adolescence
TLDR
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Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study
TLDR
Genetic evidence adds to the substantial evidence base that has previously identified cannabis use to associate with increased risk of schizophrenia, by suggesting that the relationship is causal, to inform public health messages about cannabis use.
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References

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Cannabis Use and Psychosis: A Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Evidence ∗
TLDR
It is still unclear whether this means that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia, whether cannabis use is a form of ‘self-medication’, or whether the association is due to the use of other drugs, such as amphetamines, which heavy cannabis users are more likely to use.
Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: systematic review
TLDR
The available evidence supports the hypothesis that cannabis is an independent risk factor for psychosis and the development of psychotic symptoms, particularly in vulnerable populations, and is likely to have beneficial effects on psychiatric morbidity.
Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms.
TLDR
The present study suggests that the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms is unlikely to be due to confounding factors; and the direction of causality is from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms.
Does dopamine mediate the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis? A review and integration of findings across disciplines
TLDR
It is concluded that further study of the mechanisms underlying the link between cannabis and psychosis may be conducted productively from the perspective of progressive developmental sensitization, resulting from gene-environment interactions.
Association of cannabis use with prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence.
TLDR
Cannabis use is associated with prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence and a dose-response effect was seen.
Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis
TLDR
In a sample of 2082 healthy individuals, an association is shown between an individual’s burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis, suggesting that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology.
Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people
TLDR
Cannabis use moderately increases the risk of psychotic symptoms in young people but has a much stronger effect in those with evidence of predisposition for psychosis.
Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study
TLDR
This is the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms, and the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study has a 96% follow up rate at age 26.
Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review
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