Osteoporosis, one of the major skeletal diseases in older age, is characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a resulting increase in bone fragility and hence susceptibility to fracture. In this review we analyse the systemic and local factors associated with oral bone mass loss. Systemic factors most often correlated with the oral bone mass loss include osteoporosis, renal diseases, hormonal disorders, diet and the impact of different drugs on the bony structure. Chronic periodontal disease, early loss of teeth or the effect of inadequate prosthodontic appliance on the residual ridge are the local factors associated with mandibular bone loss. Different assessment tools for the assessment of mandibular oral bone loss have been proposed, such as DXA absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, intraoral microdensitometry, SCORE index and the assessment of the thickness and quality of the mandibular inferior cortical border. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mandibular bony structure is of great importance in all fields of dentistry - from periodontology to endodontics and prosthodontics, especially in dental implantology. It is important to make the correct indication prior to dental implant therapy, and taking into account the systemic and local factors mentioned above, assess both the actual quality and quantity of the mandible.