Dental implant stability is an important determinant of the surgical success. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques can be used to assess such properties using the implant acting as a waveguide. However, the interaction between an ultrasonic wave and the implant remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic response to the quality and quantity of bone tissue in contact with the implant surface. The 10 MHz ultrasonic response of an implant used in clinical practice was simulated using an axisymmetric three-dimensional finite element model, which was validated experimentally. The amplitude of the echographic response of the implant increases when the depth of a liquid layer located at the implant interface increases. The results show the sensitivity of the QUS technique to the amount of bone in contact with the implant. The quality of bone tissue around the implant is varied by modifying the bone biomechanical properties by 20%. The amplitude of the implant echographic response decreases when bone quality increases, which corresponds to bone healing. In all cases, the amplitude of the implant response decreased when the dental implant stability increased, which is consistent with the experimental results.