Assessment of the Benefits of Live Yogurt: Methods and Markers for in vivo Studies of the Physiological Effects of Yogurt Cultures

@article{Piaia2003AssessmentOT,
  title={Assessment of the Benefits of Live Yogurt: Methods and Markers for in vivo Studies of the Physiological Effects of Yogurt Cultures},
  author={Martine Piaia and Jean-michel Antoine and Jos{\'e}-antonio Mateos-guardia and Antony Leplingard and Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop},
  journal={Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease},
  year={2003},
  volume={15},
  pages={79 - 87}
}
This document addresses nutritional and functional changes brought about by heat treatment of yogurt containing live cultures. Several lines of research evidence suggest that these products are not equivalent. Recent research shows that yogurt bacteria are able to survive passage through the human intestine. Yogurt containing viable starter cultures has been shown to improve lactose digestion in lactose-intolerant people; heat treatment of the product diminishes this improvement. There are… 

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References

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Results clearly demonstrate that ingestion of yoghurt with 108 bacteria/ml leads to lower H2 excretion and complaints than the other products, and the importance of a high population of the live flora is underlined.

The influence of chronic yogurt consumption on immunity.

Yogurt consumption, especially for the live-culture groups, was associated with a decrease in allergic symptoms in both age groups, and there was little effect on IFN-gamma and IgE production, although seniors in the yogurt group had lower levels of total IgE throughout the year.

Immunologic effects of yogurt.

The hypothesis that increased yogurt consumption, particularly in immunocompromised populations such as the elderly, may enhance the immune response, which would in turn increase resistance to immune-related diseases is supported.

Lactose malabsorption from yogurt, pasteurized yogurt, sweet acidophilus milk, and cultured milk in lactase-deficient individuals.

Yogurt is unique among the products tested in enhancing the digestion of lactose and reduced the inherent lactase activity of the yogurt by 10-fold and reduced cell counts by 100-fold, demonstrating that yogurt is well tolerated by lactase-deficient subjects resulting in little or no gastrointestinal distress.

Effect of the microbial lactase (EC 3.2.1.23) activity in yoghurt on the intestinal absorption of lactose: An in vivo study in lactase-deficient humans

Findings indicate that more than 90% of the lactose in yoghurt is digested in the small intestine of lactase-deficient subjects and suggest that both the lactase activity contained in the viable starter culture and a slow oro-caecal transit time are responsible for this excellent absorption.

Yogurt and fermented-then-pasteurized milk: effects of short-term and long-term ingestion on lactose absorption and mucosal lactase activity in lactase-deficient subjects.

The results suggest that in lactase-deficient subjects no adaptation occurs after eating yogurt or FPM and that the increased lactose absorption in yogurt must be mainly related to an intraluminal process.

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It is possible that a yogurt-supplemented diet can maintain and/or improve the intestinal microbiota of elderly subjects and significant difference was observed in the clostridia counts, that decreased after the consumption of yogurt.

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It is shown that lactic acid bacteria induce distinct mucosal cytokine profiles showing different adjuvant capacity among them, and selection of probiotic strain with immunological properties must be well defined to influence cytokine expression that favour the claimed immune response.

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In children, mechanisms other than enhanced lactose absorption from yogurt may lead to changes in the kinetics of hydrogen production, which in turn are associated with improved tolerance, and this effect and its mechanisms in children are compared.

Production of Yogurt

Yogurt is a fermented milk product that is growing in popularity. It is made from whole, reduced fat, or skim milk that is pasteurized at high temperatures, cooled, and inoculated with a fresh