Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods

  title={Assessment of risk of insect-resistant transgenic crops to nontarget arthropods},
  author={J{\"o}rg Romeis and Detlef Bartsch and Franz Bigler and Marco P Candolfi and Marco M. C. Gielkens and Susan E. Hartley and Richard L Hellmich and Joseph E. Huesing and Paul Jepson and Raymond J. Layton and Hector Quemada and Alan Raybould and Robyn I. Rose and Joachim Schiemann and Mark K. Sears and Anthony M Shelton and Jeremy Sweet and Zigfridas Vaituzis and Jeffrey D Wolt},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses on the formulation and testing of clearly stated risk hypotheses, making maximum use of available data and using formal decision guidelines… 
Harmonizing the Non-target Risk Assessment for GM Crops
The potential for adverse effects of IRGM crops on non-target arthropods (NTAs) thus has to be evaluated as part of the environmental risk assessment process that takes place prior to the decision to cultivate these crops commercially.
Non‐target risk assessment of Bt crops – Cry protein uptake by aphids
It is shown that aphids do not ingest considerable amounts of insecticidal proteins when feeding on Bt‐transgenic crops and studies to support the environmental risk assessment should focus on species that are more likely to be exposed to the insecticidal compounds.
Potential use of an arthropod database to support the non-target risk assessment and monitoring of transgenic plants
Using different hypothetical GM maize case studies, it is demonstrated how the information contained in the database can assist in identifying valued species that may be at risk and in selecting suitable species for laboratory testing, higher-tier studies, as well as post-market environmental monitoring.
Improving Design Quality of Early-tier Non-target Arthropod Studies
A typical risk hypothesis related to the NTA effects of arthropod-resistant GE plants is that the expressed protein is not toxic to valued NTAs at the concentration present in the field1,2.
Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.
The present study briefly summarizes the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results.
Assessing the potential risks of transgenic plants for non-target invertebrates in Europe: a review of classification approaches of the receiving environment
According to the current legal background for the regulation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) in Europe, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) has to be performed considering i) the crop plant,
Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing
Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas
Compatibility of Bt-transgenic crops with biological control
Increasing areas are planted worldwide with insect-resistant genetically engineered (GE) crops. Potential adverse effects of these crops on natural enemies are of major concern as they play an
Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing
The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study.
Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants
This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in risk assessments to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically


A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Bt Cotton and Maize on Nontarget Invertebrates
A meta-analysis of 42 field experiments indicates that nontarget invertebrates are generally more abundant in Bt cotton and Bt maize fields than in nontransgenic fields managed with insecticides, however, in comparison with insecticide-free control fields, certain nontarget taxa are less abundant.
A Screening Level Approach for Nontarget Insect Risk Assessment: Transgenic Bt Corn Pollen and the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae)
Quantitative risk assessment affords an objective approach for assessing ecological risk from crops produced using biotechnology and indicates that the screening-level approach was effective in focusing the scope of the problem to exposure from high-expressing Cry1A(b) events occurring within source cornfields or at the near-field edge.
Insect resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future
Eight years without resistance provides a timely opportunity for researchers, regulators and industry to reassess the risk of resistance and the most effective strategies to preserve Bt and other novel insect-resistant crops in development.
Principles for regulatory testing and interpretation of semi-field and field studies with non-target arthropods
This paper is a guidance document for side-effect testing with plant protection products on non-target arthropods under semi-field and field conditions. The principles, methods, endpoints and
Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control
Because Bt-transgenic varieties can lead to substantial reductions in insecticide use in some crops, they can contribute to integrated pest management systems with a strong biological control component.
In many countries, government regulations require environmental risk as- sessment prior to commercial sale and widespread planting of transgenic crops. Here I evaluate the design and statistical
A faunistic approach to assess potential side-effects of genetically modified Bt-Corn on non-target arthropods under field conditions
A trend towards a community effect on flying arthropods was observed with lower abundance of adult Lepidoptera, flies in the families Lonchopteridae, Mycetophilidae and Syrphidae, and the hymenopteran parasitoids Ceraphronidae.
Assessing the risks of insect resistant transgenic plants on entomophagous arthropods Bt-maize expressing Cry1Ab as a case study
A framework for risk assessment is proposed to evaluate the effects of insect resistant plants onentomophagous arthropods and a procedure on how to perform tests and give evidence that Bt-maizeposes no risk to this predator is proposed.
The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment.
The increased knowledge base underpinning the development of GM crops will provide greater confidence in the assurances plant science can give on the risks of releasing such crops, and when assessing GM crops relative to existing cultivars.
  • 2003
3. The Codex principles of risk analysis, particularly those for risk assessment, are primarily intended to apply to discrete chemical entities such as food additives and pesticide residues, or a