Calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment is a safe and reliable method for evaluating skeletal status. Until now, considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution of QUS in Caucasian populations, whereas such data are still insufficient in Asian populations, especially in Chinese mainland. The present study aimed to obtain the distribution characteristic of calcaneus QUS in healthy Chinese women, and to further investigate the distribution of low bone mass by QUS stiffness index (SI). This study included 2,498 healthy Chinese females aged 10-87 yr. The QUS exhibited a characteristic mild rise and then fall pattern with increasing age. Age, body height, and weight were significant influencing factors on SI, especially age and weight. The prevalence of osteoporosis detected using instrument-derived T-score or internal T-score was different from that calculated according to calcaneus bone mass density (BMD) previously reported. Furthermore, between instrument-derived T-scores and internal T-scores, there were also significant differences. We concluded that the World Health Organization criteria from BMD may not be appropriate for QUS, and the instrument-derived T-score may also not be appropriate for the studied population. The results will be useful for predicting fracture risk of Chinese women and determining diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis by QUS.