Assessment of environmental hazards of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene.

  title={Assessment of environmental hazards of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene.},
  author={G. Reddy and T. Reddy and H. Choudhury and F. Daniel and G. Leach},
  journal={Journal of toxicology and environmental health},
  volume={52 5},
The remedial investigation/feasibility studies conducted at certain Army installations showed a need to clean up contaminated sites, where high levels of ammunition chemicals such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), and their degradation products/metabolites were detected in surface soil and groundwater. TNB is a photodegradation product of TNT; it is not easily degraded, and persists in the environment. The toxicity data on TNB are scanty… Expand
Wildlife Toxicity Assessment for 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB)
Abstract 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB) is a nitroaromatic compound that is used as an explosive and is released to the environment during the manufacturing process and as a degradation or by-product ofExpand
Summary Review of the Aquatic Toxicology of Munitions Constituents
Abstract : Military munitions are present in waters around the world, including those waters located at current and former Department of Defense sites. This report provides a review of the aquaticExpand
Use of a Salmonella microsuspension bioassay to detect the mutagenicity of munitions compounds at low concentrations.
With the exception of the tetranitroazoxytoluene derivatives, TNT metabolites were less mutagenic than TNT, and there are discrepancies among the published data sets and the microsuspension assay results. Expand
Nitroaromatic munition compounds: environmental effects and screening values.
Comparing the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products indicates that the white-footed mouse may be more resistant to the toxic effects of chemicals than the laboratory rat and may further indicate the lesser sensitivity of wildlife species to chemical insult. Expand
Relationship between mutagenicity and reactivity or biodegradability for nitroaromatic compounds.
It is revealed that the mutagenicity of nitroaromatics correlate with reactivity and biodegradability, which may contribute to the elucidation of mutagenic expression ofNitroaromatic compounds in organisms. Expand
Toxicokinetics and tolerance of a high energy material 3,4,5‐trinitropyrazole (TNP) in mice
It is demonstrated that TNP can be rapidly eliminated in vivo without accumulating in vital organs and in vivo toxicity of TNP was stronger than that predicted using the ACD percepta software after IV and oral exposition. Expand
Toxicological Guidelines for Monocyclic Nitro-, Amino- and Aminonitroaromatics, Nitramines, and Nitrate Esters in Drinking Water
  • K. Wollin, H. Dieter
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • 2005
For toxicological evaluation and derivation of guideline values for the NCs of interest, the tolerable daily intake approach was used for chemicals exhibiting a threshold for toxic effects, and suitable estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk have been applied. Expand
Toxicity of trinitrotoluene to sheepshead minnows in water exposures.
Lethal effects of trinitrotoluene to juvenile sheepshead minnows (JSHM) (Cyprinodon variegatus) were assessed in ten-day water exposures and TNB (5-d LC50=1.2 mg L(-1)) was more toxic than TNT to SHM. Expand
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of energetic compounds on bacterial and mammalian cells in vitro.
The FT assay was more sensitive to the genotoxic effects of energetic compounds than was the V79 test, suggesting that the FT might be a better screening tool for the presence of these explosives. Expand
Toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in sediments to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca: low-dose hormesis and high-dose mortality.
The results of the current investigation suggest that organisms exposed to explosives at contaminated sites may be affected at concentrations less than 25 mg/kg through hormetic growth enhancement and at higher concentrations through increased mortality. Expand


Subchronic Toxicity Studies on 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene, l,3-Dinitrobenzene, and Tetryl in Rats.
Abstract : Nitroaromatics, such as 1 ,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 1 ,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TN B), and N-methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (tetryl), have been detected as environmental contaminants ofExpand
Reproductive Toxicity Screen of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene Administered in the Diet of Sprague-Dawley Rats
A modified Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) reproductive study was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, finding methemoglobinemia and splenic hemosiderosis were common findings in the high- and mid-dose levels of both sexes at necropsy. Expand
Subchronic Toxicity Studies on 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene, 1,3- Dinitrobenzene, and Tetryl in Rats. Subchronic Toxicity Evaluation of 1,3,5- Trinitrobenzene in Fischer 344 Rats
Subchronic toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrationsExpand
1,3-dinitrobenzene: toxic effects in vivo and in vitro.
Signs of toxicity included reduction in ambulatory motion, ataxia, weaknes, dyspnea, rapid heartbeat, cyanosis, coma, and eventual respiratory failure in rats given 1,3-dinitrobenzene orally as a 1% suspension in corn oil. Expand
Mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and structure-activity relationships of wastewater components emanating from the manufacture of trinitrotoluene.
The mutagenic response of isomeric DNTs was found to correlate with the compound's ability to undergo charge-transfer complexation with reductive enzymes, whereas further complexation appears to be required for inducing mutation in dinitrobenzenes. Expand
Carcinogenesis of nitrated toluenes and benzenes, skin and lung tumor assays in mice. Final report
A series of nitrated toluenes and benzene were tested for their capability to act as initiators, promoters or complete carcinogens in mouse skin. 2,6- dinitrotoluenes and 2-nitrotoluene were found toExpand
Genotoxic activity in microorganisms of tetryl, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene.
In this segment of a programme initiated by military authorities, the genotoxic potential of three nitroaromatic compounds, which have found significant use in explosive preparations, has been demonstrated. Expand
Identification of TNT Transformation Products in Soil
Abstract : Solvent-extractable TNT transformation products have been identified in explosive-contaminated soils. Soils from U.S. Army installations were extracted with a variety of solventsExpand
Fourteen‐day Toxicity Study of 1,3,5‐Trinitrobenzene in Fischer 344 Rats
Hematology and clinical chemistry studies indicated a decrease in red blood cell count and hematocrit, a decreases in alkaline phosphatase, an increase in Heinz bodies and increased methemoglobin concentration as compared to controls in both sexes. Expand
Subchronic toxicity of trinitrotoluene in Fischer 344 rats.
Hemosiderin-laden macrophages, congestion of the splenic red pulp, methemoglobin production indicative of the oxidizing activity of TNT and/or its metabolites, and the lack of bone marrow toxicity suggested hemolysis as the mechanism of anemia. Expand