Assessment of effective orifice area of prosthetic aortic valves with Doppler echocardiography: an in vivo and in vitro study.


OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the Doppler assessment of effective orifice area in aortic prosthetic valves. The effective orifice area is a less flow-dependent parameter than Doppler gradients that is used to assess prosthetic valve function. However, in vivo reference values show a pronounced spread of effective orifice area and smaller orifices than… (More)


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