Development of a competence-based curriculum is important. This study aimed to develop competence assessment tools in emergency medicine and use it to assess competence of Cameroonian healthcare professionals. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Through literature review, expert survey, and discrimination tests, we developed a self-survey questionnaire and a scenario-based competence assessment tool for assessing clinical knowledge and self-confidence to perform clinical practices or procedures. The self-survey consisted of 23 domains and 94 questionnaires on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective scenario-based competence assessment tool was used to validate the self-survey results for five life-threatening diseases presenting frequently in emergency rooms of Cameroon. Response rate of the self-survey was 82.6%. In this first half of competence assessment, knowledge of infectious disease had the highest score (4.6 ± 0.4) followed by obstetrics and gynecology (4.2 ± 0.6) and hematology and oncology (4.2 ± 0.5); in contrast, respondents rated the lowest score in the domains of disaster, abuse and assault, and psychiatric and behavior disorder (all of mean 2.8). In the scenario-based test, knowledge of multiple trauma had the highest score (4.3 ± 1.2) followed by anaphylaxis (3.4 ± 1.4), diabetic ketoacidosis (3.3 ± 1.0), ST-elevation myocardial infarction (2.5 ± 1.4), and septic shock (2.2 ± 1.1). Mean difference between the self-survey and scenario-based test was statistically insignificant (mean, -0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.41 to 0.36), and agreement rate was 58.3%. Both evaluation tools showed a moderate correlation, and the study population had relatively low competence for specific aspects of emergency medicine and clinical procedures and skills.