Assessment and management of rapid-cycling bipolar affective disorder

  title={Assessment and management of rapid-cycling bipolar affective disorder},
  author={Mukhtar and Ahmed and Richard Morriss},
& Pieve (1974). They arbitrarily defined rapid cycling as four or more mood episodes per year. Rapid cycling in relation to bipolar affective disorder has been defined by the DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994)(Box 1). Some patients show cycling frequencies in the order of weeks to days, a phenomenon known as ultra-rapid cycling. Cycling of discrete mood phases of less than 24 hours has been described as ultra-ultra rapid cycling or ultra-radian cycling (Kramlinger & Post… CONTINUE READING

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