Assessing the risk of gene flow from genetically modified trees carrying mitigation transgenes

  title={Assessing the risk of gene flow from genetically modified trees carrying mitigation transgenes},
  author={Anna Kuparinen and Frank M. Schurr},
  journal={Biological Invasions},
The increasing use of genetically modified (GM) plants has raised concerns about the escape of transgenes to conventional populations. To counteract possible fitness advantages of GM plants, an advantageous ‘primary transgene’ may be linked to a ‘mitigation’ transgene that is selectively disfavored. A risk related to this technique is the possible break-up of the transgenes. This may lead to the establishment of genotypes that only express the primary transgenic trait and are therefore… 

Gene Flow, Risk Assessment and the Environmental Release of Transgenic Plants

An overview of the current literature on gene flow from transgenic plants is provided, providing a framework of issues for those considering the release of a transgenic plant into the environment.

Gene flow and simulation of transgene dispersal from hybrid poplar plantations.

Empirical and modeling studies suggest that transgene spread can be spatially extensive, however, the amount of spread is highly dependent on ecological and management context, and can be greatly limited or prevented by management or mitigation genes such as those that cause sexual infertility.

Transgene stability and dispersal in forest trees

It is important to devise innovative technologies in genetic engineering that lead to genetically stable transgenic trees not only for qualitative traits, but also for quantitative traits, and also prevent escape of transgenes in the forest trees.

Fate of transgenes in the forest tree genome

  • M. R. Ahuja
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Tree Genetics & Genomes
  • 2010
It is desirable to produce genetically stable transgenic trees, and have biocontainment measures in place for testing and deployment of the GE forest trees, to achieve transgene stability and containment goals.

Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing

A sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modifiedpoplars in realistic European landscapes are presented.

Gene Flow, Invasiveness, and Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Crops

A better understanding of factors controlling population size, dynamics, and range limits in weedy volunteer GM crop and related host or target weed populations is necessary before the effect of biotic and abiotic stress‐tolerance GM traits can be fully assessed.

Clonal variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and in transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula)

The conclusion was that the variation in the success of Scots pine embryogenesis and in the growth of Scots Pine rooted cuttings is strongly affected by genotype and, hence, the rooted cutTings are suitable for testing height growth in breeding programmes.

Can Prunus serotina be Genetically Engineered for Reproductive Sterility and Insect Pest Resistance?

In this review, general information about black cherry and the problem of gummosis are introduced and the various strategies for gene containment, the possibility of using cyanogenesis to enhance host resistance, and the current status of micropropagation, adventitious shoot regeneration, rooting, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are discussed.

Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years

The application of transgenic plant in the production of vaccines, antibodies and pharmaceutical proteins has become a hot point in the plant genetic engineering in recent years and there are some limiting factors of application such as yield, downstream processing and so on.



Genes invading new populations: a risk assessment perspective.

Rate of transgene spread via long-distance seed dispersal in Pinus taeda

Letting the gene out of the bottle: the population genetics of genetically modified crops.

It is shown that natural selection, and not the overall rate of gene flow, is the most important factor governing the spread of favorable alleles, and much of this review focuses on the likely effects of transgenes once they escape.

Population genetics of transgene containment

It is found that even with a leakage parameter as small as 10−3, the probability of escape within as few as 10 generations could be appreciable, and the probability distribution of escape time depends on the rates of pollen and seed flow from the crop to wild populations.

Tandem constructs to mitigate transgene persistence: tobacco as a model

The results demonstrate the suppression of crop–weed hybrids when competing with wild type weeds, or such crops as volunteer weeds, in seasons when the selector (herbicide) is not used.

Mitigation of establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in volunteers using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene.

The data clearly indicate that the Deltagai gene greatly enhances the yield in a weed-free transgenic crop, but the dwarf plants can be eliminated when competing with non-transgenic cohorts (and presumably other species) when the selective herbicide is not used.


GEOs should be evaluated and used within the context of a scientifically based regulatory policy that encourages innovation without compromising sound environmental management, and science-based regulation should subject all transgenic organisms to a similar risk assessment framework.

Genetic engineering in conifer forestry: Technical and social considerations

  • C. Walter
  • Engineering
    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant
  • 2007
Some of the issues involved for world forestry are discussed, with particular focus on future demand for timber and timber products and how modern biotechnology can contribute to meet the growing demand.