Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.

@article{Karavalakis2014AssessingTI,
  title={Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.},
  author={Georgios Karavalakis and Daniel Z Short and Robert L Russell and Heejung Jung and Kent C. Johnson and Akua Asa-Awuku and Thomas D. Durbin},
  journal={Environmental science & technology},
  year={2014},
  volume={48 23},
  pages={14016-24}
}
This study investigated the effects of higher ethanol blends and an isobutanol blend on the criteria emissions, fuel economy, gaseous toxic pollutants, and particulate emissions from two flexible-fuel vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines, with one wall-guided direct injection and one port fuel injection configuration. Both vehicles were tested over triplicate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Unified Cycles (UC) using a chassis dynamometer. Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC… CONTINUE READING
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