Assessing the Tuning of Sung Indian Classical Music

Abstract

The issue of tuning in Indian classical music has been, historically , a matter of theoretical debate. In this paper, we study its contemporary practice in sung performances of Car-natic and Hindustani music following an empiric and quantitative approach. To do so, we select stable fundamental frequencies , estimated via a standard algorithm, and construct interval histograms from a pool of recordings. We then compare such histograms against the ones obtained for different music sources and against the theoretical values derived from 12-note just intonation and equal temperament. Our results evidence that the tunings in Carnatic and Hindustani music differ, the former tending to a just intonation system and the latter having much equal-tempered influences. Car-natic music also presents signs of a more continuous distribution of pitches. Further subdivisions of the octave are partially investigated, finding no strong evidence of them.

Extracted Key Phrases

7 Figures and Tables

Showing 1-10 of 19 references

South Indian Music. The Indian Music Publishing House

  • P Sambamoorthy
  • 2006
Highly Influential
4 Excerpts

Temperaments. Grove Music Online . Oxford Music Online Available online: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/ music

  • M Lindley
  • 2011
2 Excerpts

Pitch estimation of notes in indian classical music

  • S R Mahendra, H A Patil, N K Shukla
  • 2009
1 Excerpt

Evaluation of srutis in hindustani music from recorded performances

  • A K Datta, R Sengupta, N Dey, D Nag, A Mukerjee
  • 2005
1 Excerpt

Srutis from objective analysis of the performances of hindustani music using clustering algorithm

  • A K Datta, R Sengupta, N Dey, D Nag, A Mukerjee
  • 2004
1 Excerpt

Tuning, Timbre, Spectrum, Scale

  • W A Sethares
  • 2004
1 Excerpt
Showing 1-10 of 15 extracted citations