Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach.

@article{Carver1989AssessingCS,
  title={Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach.},
  author={Charles S Carver and Michael F Scheier and Jagdish Kumari Weintraub},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1989},
  volume={56 2},
  pages={
          267-83
        }
}
We developed a multidimensional coping inventory to assess the different ways in which people respond to stress. Five scales (of four items each) measure conceptually distinct aspects of problem-focused coping (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, restraint coping, seeking of instrumental social support); five scales measure aspects of what might be viewed as emotional-focused coping (seeking of emotional social support, positive reinterpretation, acceptance, denial… 

Tables from this paper

Coping with coping assessment: A critical review

The recent literature on self‐report measures of coping reactions and strategies is reviewed and critically evaluated. Most of the coping research has focused on assessing several basic coping

Assessing coping with interpersonal stress: Development and validation of the Interpersonal Stress Coping Scale in Japan.

Three studies involving approximately 4,100 Japanese were conducted to estimate the validity and reliability of the Interpersonal Stress Coping Scale (ISCS) in Japan, an instrument designed to

Facing up to a new way of coping: development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure engagement in coping strategies facilitated by Facebook

The increasing prominence of social networking site (SNS) use has led to the identification that people may use such sites to cope with stress. However, to date, no measure has been developed to

Validation evidence for three coping measures.

Investigation of the construct validity of 3 coping scales indicates that the data fit the original factor structures reasonably well and adequate convergent and discriminant validity was found for the revelant scales from each of the 3 coping measures.

Multidimensional assessment of coping: a critical evaluation.

The results suggest that the Multidimensional Coping Inventory is a valid and highly reliable multidimensional measure of coping styles.

Coping strategies: a prospective study of patterns, stability, and relationships with psychological distress.

The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies and establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping.

Predicting approach-avoidance: The roles of coping styles, state anxiety, and situational appraisal

Abstract This study examined the role of dispositional coping styles, state anxiety, and situational appraisal in the prediction of situational coping strategies. One hundred and seven participants

The Role of Coping Strategies on Psychological and Physical Well-being

The role of coping strategies as moderators in the relation between hassles and psychological/physical well-being was explored. Subjects (N=207) completed the revised Ways of Coping Checklist. Factor
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES

Does coping help? A reexamination of the relation between coping and mental health.

Those in poorer mental health and under greater stress used less adaptive coping strategies, such as escapism, but coping efforts still affected mental health independent of prior symptom levels and degree of stress.

Coping, stress, and social resources among adults with unipolar depression.

Stressors, social resources, and coping were additively predictive of patient's functioning, but coping and social resources did not have stress-attenuation or buffering effects.

Coping with Stress: A Study of Male Adolescents' Coping Strategies as Related to Adjustment

In an effort to explore the possible relationship between coping strategies and adjustment levels in stressed high school students, 174 male students were first administered the High School Social

[An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample].

This study analyzes the ways 100 community-residing men and women aged 45 to 64 coped with the stressful events of daily living during one year with no effects associated with age, and gender differences emerge only in problem-focused coping.

Locus of control, cognitive appraisal, and coping in stressful episodes.

  • K. Parkes
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1984
Investigation of locus of control and coping processes in relation to specific stressful episodes reported by 171 female student nurses showed that the patterns of coping reported by internals were potentially more adaptive in comparison to types of appraisal than those of externals.

Coping with stress: divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists.

Examining how optimists differ from pessimists in the kinds of coping strategies that they use revealed modest but reliable positive correlations between optimism and problem-focused coping, seeking of social support, and emphasizing positive aspects of the stressful situation.

Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes.

An intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults clarifies the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.

Coping in stressful episodes: the role of individual differences, environmental factors, and situational characteristics.

  • K. Parkes
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1986
Individual differences, environmental factors, and situational characteristics are examined as predictors of three self-report measures of coping derived from the Ways of Coping Questionnaire to discuss in relation to current substantive and methodological issues in the study of coping and adaptation.

Effects of components of protection-motivation theory on adaptive and maladaptive coping with a health threat.

The results disclosed that the high-threat condition energized all forms of coping; it did not differentially cue specific coping strategies, and the most maladaptive strategy was avoidant thinking, which simultaneously reduced fear of the threat and weakened intentions to adopt the adaptive response.

Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.

  • M. ScheierC. Carver
  • Psychology
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
  • 1985
A scale measuring dispositional optimism, defined in terms of generalized outcome expectancies, was used in a longitudinal study of symptom reporting among a group of undergraduates and predicted that subjects who initially reported being highly optimistic were subsequently less likely to report being bothered by symptoms.
...