Assessing cancer risks of low-dose radiation

  title={Assessing cancer risks of low-dose radiation},
  author={Leon H. F. Mullenders and Mike Atkinson and Herwig G. Paretzke and Laure Sabatier and Simon Bouffler},
  journal={Nature Reviews Cancer},
Ionizing radiation is considered a non-threshold carcinogen. However, quantifying the risk of the more commonly encountered low and/or protracted radiation exposures remains problematic and subject to uncertainty. Therefore, a major challenge lies in providing a sound mechanistic understanding of low-dose radiation carcinogenesis. This Perspective article considers whether differences exist between the effects mediated by high- and low-dose radiation exposure and how this affects the assessment… 

Radiation exposure from imaging tests: is there an increased cancer risk?

The potential cancer risk from low- and high-dose radiation, their effects on DNA repair response pathways, and the best course of action for patients and providers to minimize risk are discussed.

Cancer Risk of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

This review aims to address the central questions in radiological protection; including quantification of the risks and uncertainties from low doses of ionizing radiation and what is a sound scientific consensus to advise on risk perception for low dose radiation exposure.

Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.

This review summarizes the current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low- dose radiation.

Low-dose radiation risk and individual variation in radiation sensitivity in Fukushima

Following Japan's worst-ever accident, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), radiation doses have been measured among Fukushima residents through the use of both personal dosimeters and whole-body counters, with a possible issue that there might be Fukushima residents, including young children, with greater than average radiation sensitivity because of their genetic background.

Issues in Low Dose Radiation Biology: The Controversy Continues. A Perspective

This perspective reflects the authors' view of current issues in low dose radiation biology research, highlights some of the controversies therein, and suggests areas of future research to address both issues inLow dose radiation research and the controversies.

Assessment of the Risk for Developing a Second Malignancy From Scattered and Secondary Radiation In Radiation Therapy

The current state-of-the-art in risk modeling for radiation-induced malignancies in radiation therapy is described, distinguishing between two volumes: first, the organs within the main radiation field receiving low or intermediate doses (typically between 0.1 and 50 Gy); and second, the organ far away from the treatment volume receiving low doses mainly due to scattered and secondary radiation.

Assessing the risk of second malignancies after modern radiotherapy

Risks from treatments such as particle therapy have not yet been determined and are unlikely to become apparent for many years, therefore, there is a need to develop risk assessments based on current knowledge of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

Ionizing radiation biomarkers for potential use in epidemiological studies.

The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

  • R. Mitchel
  • Biology, Physics
    Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society
  • 2009
Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status.



Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know

  • D. BrennerR. Doll M. Zaider
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2003
The difficulties involved in quantifying the risks of low-dose radiation are reviewed, a linear extrapolation of cancer risks from intermediate to very low doses currently appears to be the most appropriate methodology, and a linearity assumption is not necessarily the most conservative approach.

Radiation-Related Cancer Risks at Low Doses among Atomic Bomb Survivors

Analysis is of solid cancer incidence from 1958–1994, involving 7,000 cancer cases among 50,000 survivors in that dose and distance range, and it is indicated that modification of the neutron dose estimates currently under consideration would not markedly change the conclusions.

Recent reports on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation and its dose–effect relationship

The conclusion of the French Report is that the linear no-threshold relationship (LNT) may greatly overestimate the carcinogenic effect of low doses and even more that of very low doses, such as those delivered during X-ray examinations.

Low-dose exposure to gamma rays induces specific gene regulations in normal human keratinocytes.

These results show for the first time that low-dose ionizing radiation is able to induce specific transcriptional responses in human keratinocytes, and support the potential usefulness of microarrays in biological dosimetry studies after low- dose exposures.

Evidence for beneficial low level radiation effects and radiation hormesis.

The linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favour of a threshold or hormesis, consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer.

Will Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects or Adaptive Responses Impact on the Shape of the Dose Response Relationships at Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation?

  • W. Morgan
  • Physics
    Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society
  • 2006
Adaptive responses indicate that low doses of radiation can reduce damage induced by a second challenging dose, and the potential impact of these two low dose effects on the shape of the dose response relationship is discussed.

Comparison of the risks of cancer incidence and mortality following radiation therapy for benign and malignant disease with the cancer risks observed in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

  • M. Little
  • Medicine
    International journal of radiation biology
  • 2001
The relative risks of cancer in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions are generally less than those in comparable subsets of the Japanese A-bomb survivor cancer incidence and mortality data.

In Vivo Mutagenic Effect of Very Low Dose Radiation

A non-linear dose response of induced inversions in pKZ1 mice exposed to a wide dose range of low LET radiation is observed and the effect of genetic susceptibility where animals that are heterozygous for the Ataxia Telangiectasia gene exhibit different responses to low dose radiation compared to their normal litter-mates is observed.

The radiation-induced bystander effect: evidence and significance

The evidence for existence of radiation-induced bystander effects and the current knowledge of the biochemical and molecular events involved in mediating these effects are described and potential similarities between factors that mediate the radiation- induced bystander and adaptive responses are highlighted.

Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure.

The facts are summarized about CT scans, which involve much higher doses of radiation than plain films, and the implications for public health are summarized.