Assessing Fluid Responsiveness in Spontaneously Breathing Patients.


OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this study was to test if fasting volunteers exhibit fluid responsiveness using noninvasive hemodynamic measurements. The secondary objective was to test a passive leg raise (PLR) maneuver as a diagnostic predictor of fluid responsiveness. METHODS This was a quasi-experimental design involving healthy volunteers. Subjects were excluded for pregnancy and congestive heart failure. Following a 12-hour fast, subjects had baseline hemodynamic monitoring recorded using noninvasive, continuous pulse contour analysis. Subjects then had a PLR maneuver performed, followed by an intravenous bolus of crystalloid. A rise in stroke volume ≥ 10% from baseline with the bolus was considered consistent with fluid responsiveness, and the same rise with a PLR was consistent with a positive PLR maneuver. The primary outcome was the change in stroke volume with a fluid bolus. Univariate analysis assessed changes in hemodynamic parameters. Logistic regression analysis determined the test characteristics of the PLR in predicting subjects who were ultimately fluid responsive. RESULTS Forty subjects completed the study. The mean change in stroke volume with a crystalloid bolus was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 16% to 21%). Thirty-six (90%) subjects were fluid responsive. The mean PLR response for the overall cohort was 16% (95% CI = 12% to 19%), and 26 (65%) subjects had a positive PLR maneuver. The PLR was 72% sensitive (95% CI = 55% to 85%) and 100% specific (95% CI = 40% to 100%) for predicting the presence of fluid responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS Noninvasive assessment of fluid responsiveness in healthy volunteers and prediction of this response with a PLR maneuver is achievable. Further work is indicated to test these methods in acutely ill patients.

DOI: 10.1111/acem.12864

Cite this paper

@article{Miller2016AssessingFR, title={Assessing Fluid Responsiveness in Spontaneously Breathing Patients.}, author={Joseph B. Miller and Chuan-Xing Ho and Joy Tang and Richard William Thompson and Jared Goldberg and Ahmed Al Amer and Bashar Nahab}, journal={Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine}, year={2016}, volume={23 2}, pages={186-90} }