A strain of Escherichia coli (AN1007) carrying the polar uncD436 allele which affects the operon coding for the F1-F0 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) complex was isolated and characterized. The uncD436 allele affected the two genes most distal to the operon promoter, i.e., uncD and uncC. Although the genes coding for the F0 portion of the ATPase complex were not affected in strains carrying this mutant allele, the lack of reconstitution of washed membranes by normal F1 ATPase suggested that a functional F0 might not be formed. This conclusion was supported by the observation that the 18,000-molecular-weight F0 subunit, coded for by the uncF gene, was absent from the membranes. Plasmid pAN36 (uncD+C+), when inserted into a strain carrying the uncD436 allele, resulted in the incorporation of the 18,000-molecular-weight F0 subunit into the membrane. A further series of experiments with Mu-induced polarity mutants, with and without plasmid pAN36, showed that the formation of both the alpha- and beta-subunits of F1 ATPase was an essential prerequisite to the incorporation into the membrane of the 18,000-molecular-weight F0 subunit and to the formation of a functional F0. Examination of the polypeptide composition of membranes from various unc mutants allowed a sequence for the normal assembly of the F1-F0 ATPase complex to be proposed.