Aspilia spp. Leaves: A puzzle in the feeding behavior of wild chimpanzees

@article{Wrangham2006AspiliaSL,
  title={Aspilia spp. Leaves: A puzzle in the feeding behavior of wild chimpanzees},
  author={Richard W. Wrangham and Toshiyuki Nishida},
  journal={Primates},
  year={2006},
  volume={24},
  pages={276-282}
}
Unlike other chimpanzee food items, the leaves ofAspilia pluriseta, A. rudis and A. mossambicensis (Compositae) are eaten without being chewed. Moreover,A. pluriseta andA. rudis are eaten slowly and singly and particularly in the early morning. This unusual behavior suggests thatAspilia leaves offer peculiar stimuli, perhaps with pharmacological effects. 
A preliminary note on the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania
TLDR
Feces of wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, were inspected for intestinal parasites under a compound microscope and found intestinal nematodes significantly increased in the mid-rainy season, supporting the hypothesis that Aspilia leaves which are occasionally swallowed by chimpanzees may function as a vermicide.
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Two African species of Aspilia (Asteraceae) were found to contain the potent antibiotic thiarubrine A as a major leaf phytochemical, which strengthens the view that the feeding behavior of wild chimpanzees is related to special physiological or pharmacological effects on the animals.
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Bioassay-directed fractionation provided two new limonoids, trichirubines A and B, which may be helpful in recovering naturally occurring compounds of medicinal significance for human medicine.
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    International Journal of Primatology
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TLDR
Worms of O. stephanostomum were recovered live and motile from chimpanzee dung, trapped within the folded leaves and attached to leaf surfaces by trichomes, though some were moving freely within the fecal matter, suggesting that the physical properties of leaves may contribute to the expulsion of parasites.
Chemical Basis for Aspilia Leaf-Swallowing by Chimpanzees: A Reanalysis
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Analysis of three North American taxa found high concentrations of thiarubrines and thiophenes in the roots of Eriophyllum lanatum and Chaenactis douglasii, and the roots and leaves of Ambrosia chamissonis.
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