Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite

@article{Wster2005AsiaticCS,
  title={Asiatic cobras: Systematics and snakebite},
  author={Wolfgang W{\"u}ster and Roger S. Thorpe},
  journal={Experientia},
  year={2005},
  volume={47},
  pages={205-209}
}
The population affinities of the Asiatic cobras of the genusNaja are investigated, using multivariate analysis of a range of morphological characters. This complex, which was formerly thought to be monospecific, consists of at least eight full species. In some cases, species whose bites require different antivenoms occur sympatrically. The new understanding of the systematics of the Asiatic cobra complex calls for a reappraisal of cobra antivenom use in Asia, and for more research into venom… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Naja siamensis, a cryptic species of venomous snake revealed by mtDNA sequencing
TLDR
Comparison sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene is used to reveal the existence of a widespread, cryptic species of spiting cobra from southeast Asia, Naja siamensis, which may be of considerable medical significance, and calls for further research into venom composition in Asiatic cobras.
A new species of spitting cobra (Naja) from north-eastern Africa (Serpentes: Elapidae)
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences reveals the new species of spitting cobra Naja nubiae sp.
Get an eyeful of this: a new species of giant spitting cobra from eastern and north-eastern Africa (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja)
TLDR
A new species of giant spitting cobra, Naja ashei sp.
On a collection of reptiles from Southern Mindanao Island, the Philippines
TLDR
The range and ex tent of morphologica l variation are expanded for these species, as well as fo r the rare colubrid 0 /igodon maculatus (TAY LOR, 1918) and the first prec ise locality on Mindanao of Ophiophagus hannah.
The embryonic development of the Egyptian cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae)
TLDR
There does appear to be a broadly conserved pattern of in ovo development in at least macrostomatan snakes, despite having a slightly shorter incubation period and a somewhat larger adult size than the Asian monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia.
ADDITIONS TO THE SNAKE FAUNA OF SOUTHERN LAOS, WITH THE SECOND LAOTIAN SPECIMEN OF Naja siamensis (LAURENTI, 1768) AND THE FIRST COUNTRY RECORD OF Oligodon taeniatus (GÜNTHER, 1861) (SQUAMATA, SERPENTES)
TLDR
A juvenile specimen of Oligodon taeniatus (Gunther, 1861) proves the first voucher specimen of this species recorded from Laos, and confirms the occurrence of this medically important species in different parts of the Mekong valley.
Integration of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences and morphology reveals unexpected diversity in the forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca) species complex in Central and West Africa (Serpentes: Elapidae).
TLDR
Congruent patterns of variation in mtDNA, nuclear genes and morphology support the recognition of five separate species within the African forest cobra, Naja (Boulengerina) melanoleuca, confirming the species status of N. peroescobari and revealing two previously unnamed West African species, which are described as new.
The Venom of Spectacled Cobra (Elapidae: Naja naja): In Vitro Study from Distinct Geographical Origins in Sri Lanka
TLDR
A certain extent of variations in the pathological effects of N. naja venom samples according to their geographical distribution is revealed.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Population affinities of the asiatic cobra (Naja naja) species complex in south‐east Asia: reliability and random resampling
The population systematics of the cobras of the genus Naja in southern Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia are investigated, using multivariate analysis of a large number of morphological characters.
Bites by the Philippine cobra (Naja naja philippinensis): prominent neurotoxicity with minimal local signs.
TLDR
Bites by the Philippine cobra produce a distinctive clinical picture characterized by severe neurotoxicity of rapid onset and minimal local tissue damage.
Snakebite mortality in the world.
In examining the relative importance of snakebite mortality in different parts of the world, the authors review the information collected concerning both snakebite mortality and the species of snake
ELISA confirmation of acute and past envenoming by the monocellate Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia).
TLDR
This study confirms the value of ELISA-immunodiagnosis and the predominance of N. kaouthia as a cause of neurotoxic envenoming in the Bang Phli area and suggests that patients with neurotoxic signs should be given B. fasciatus antivenom if they fail to respond to cobra antivenoms.
The importance of bites by the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis carinatus): epidemiological studies in Nigeria and a review of the world literature.
TLDR
Perennial and seasonal fluctuations in incidence and mortality, the circumstances in which bites occurred and the types of people bitten were studied at Bambur, Zaria, Kaltungo and Gombe hospitals, indicating E. carinatus was the principal cause of snake bite morbidity wherever data were available throughout its wide geographical range.
The Relative Efficiency of Two Types of Anti-Venom Sera in Neutralizing Cobra Venom
TLDR
Two snake antivenins were received at the laboratory for testing against the venom of the Luzon cobra, Naja naja philippinensis, and both types of antivenin had been successfully used, but it was desired to check their relative efficiency against cobra venom, under controlled conditions.
Geographic variation: A synthesis of cause, data, pattern and congruence in relation to subspecies, multivariate analysis and phylogenesis
TLDR
Multivariate character analysis, based on ordination analysis and assisted by mapping techniques, can elucidate the range of patterns of geographic variation and may indicate their congruence, predictivity and...
BIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION AND RACIAL AFFINITIES
  • By R. S. Thorpe
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1976
TLDR
Using phenotypic variation to measure the similarity between the populations of a species one should analyse the variation in several characters simultaneously simultaneously, known as multivariate analysis.
Gifttiere und ihre Waffen
TLDR
Neurotoxic peptides from scorpions opened new aspects of action mechanisms on cell membranes; from snake venoms also ingredients have been obtained which serve as valuable pharmaceutical drugs.
A comparative study of ordination techniques in numerical taxonomy in relation to racial variation in the ringed snake Natrix natrix (L.)
TLDR
The a priori preferences and various criteria, including portrayal of a ‘known taxonomic model’, indicate that canonical analysis and R mode principal components analysis on column-standardized data (or its dual principal coordinate analysis) are to be recommended.
...
1
2
...