Asian Primate Classification

  title={Asian Primate Classification},
  author={Douglas Brandon-Jones and Ardith A. Eudey and Thomas Geissmann and Colin P. Groves and D. J. Melnick and Juan Carlos Morales and Myron Shekelle and C B Stewart},
  journal={International Journal of Primatology},
In the foreseeable future there is little likelihood of achieving consensus on the number of Asian primate genera and species, and their subspecific composition. There is a more realistic hope of reaching agreement on the number of recognizable subspecies. The latter objective is more urgent because in order to reliably assess generic and specific numbers, it is essential that effective conservation measures are implemented for as many subspecies as possible. This cannot be comprehensively… 

The Pros and Cons of a Consensus List of Asian Primate Subspecies

Conflicts over the significance of genetic evidence and other questions raised during the compilation of the Asian list confirm that, like its predecessors, this list is not definitive and should and will be superseded.

Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review

The major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates are summarized, recent advances in the context of these taxonomies are discussed, and key areas for additional research are suggested to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity.

Erratum to: Defining Genera of New World Monkeys: The Need for a Critical View in a Necessarily Arbitrary Task

  • G. Garbino
  • Biology
    International Journal of Primatology
  • 2015
It is proposed that a Bfocused monophyly approach for defining genera that overlays a wide variety of morphological, behavioral, and ecological characteristics on the molecular phylogeny to produce a classification that will better withstand future investigations.

The phylogenetic species concept and its role in Southeast Asian mammal conservation

The real debate appears to be about the best method to allocate an appropriate taxonomic rank to taxa that is in line with their evolutionary distinctness and thus the need to prevent their extinction.

Defining Genera of New World Monkeys: The Need for a Critical View in a Necessarily Arbitrary Task

  • G. Garbino
  • Biology
    International Journal of Primatology
  • 2015
It is proposed that the genus-level changes in platyrrhine taxonomy are reviewed and a “focused monophyly” approach for defining genera that overlays a wide variety of morphological, behavioral, and ecological characteristics on the molecular phylogeny to produce a classification is adopted.

Molecular systematics and conservation of the langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia

  • K. P. Karanth
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Journal of Genetics
  • 2010
Recently, the scores for taxonomic uniqueness of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia were revised using this molecular phylogeny-based classification and according to the revised scores, Phayres leaf monkey and golden langur are priority species for conservation followed by capped and Nilgiri langurs.


Over 300 study specimens from Chicago, Kolkata, Leiden, London, Mumbai, New York, Paris and Washington DC are combined with a literature survey to review the taxonomy of Semnopithecus johnii, S. entellus and S. priam, and the nomenclature and subspecific geographic distributions discussed.

Lemur Diversity in Madagascar

The aim is to provide a baseline for future taxonomic investigation, as well as a clearer focus for research and conservation priorities, and to review the current understanding of the diversity and current and past ranges of lemurs and indicate where there is controversy, discrepancy, or lack of knowledge.

Conservation Genetics of the Philippine Tarsier: Cryptic Genetic Variation Restructures Conservation Priorities for an Island Archipelago Primate

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA are used to empirically infer geographic partitioning of genetic variation and to identify evolutionarily distinct lineages for conservation action in the Philippine tarsier.



Taxonomy and evolution of thesinica group of macaques: I. Species and subspecies accounts ofMacaca sinica

A new species account of Macaca sinica, the Sri Lanka toque macaque, is presented and external and cranial characters of the species are described and analyzed.

mtDNA diversity in rhesus monkeys reveals overestimates of divergence time and paraphyly with neighboring species.

It is concluded that intraspecific mtDNA diversity is substantial in at least some primate species, and the reliability of hominoid mtDNA phylogenies, based as they are on one or a few representatives of each species, in an already depauperate superfamily of primates is questioned.

The Asian Colobinae (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae) as indicators of Quaternary climatic change

A reappraisal of the zoogeography and systematics of Asian colobines demonstrates marked discontinuities in their distribution, and the greater significance of climatic than topographical barriers in delineating the Oriental zoogeographic region, and a rapid speciation rate is implied.

Phylogenetic relationships of the macaques (Cercopithecidae: Macaca), as revealed by high resolution restriction site mapping of mitochondrial ribosomal genes.

This study supports the notion that species with more specialized genitalia evolved from less derived taxa, and in general is in agreement with the dispersal scenarios proposed by Fooden (1980) and Delson ( 1980) for the macaques.

A species definition for the modern synthesis.

  • J. Mallet
  • Environmental Science
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 1995

The identity of Tarsius pumilus, a pygmy species endemic to the montane mossy forests of central Sulawesi. American Museum novitates ; no. 2867

In 1917, Henry C. Raven obtained a small-bodied tarsier from upper montane rain forest in the mountains of Central Sulawesi. Miller and Hollister (192 lb) designated the specimen as holotype of

The phylogenetic relationships and classification of the doucs and snub-nosed langurs of China and Vietnam.

A detailed examination of relatively large numbers of specimens of most of the species of langurs concerned supports the conclusion that the douc and snub-nosed langurs are generically distinct and should be referred to as species of Pygathrix and Rhinopithecus.

A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae: superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new subspecies

The anomalous geographic distribution of external characters in the surviving populations is interpreted as indicating that the climatic deterioration was sufficiently slow as apparently to avoid the extinction of any of these subspecies; but sufficiently rapid as to prevent them from interbreeding into a single population as their distribution contracted to its present extent.

Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis

A new mechanistic taxonomy of speciation is needed before population genetics, which deals with evolutionary mechanisms, can be properly integrated with speciation theory; that is, the various modes of Speciation should be characterized according to the various forces and genetic mechanisms that underly the evolution of isolating barriers.


Results of this study indicate that hybridization among M. maura and M. tonkeana has led to different distributions of molecular variation in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA in the contact zone, and are largely consistent with a macaque behavioral paradigm of female philopatry and obligate male dispersal.