Ascorbic Acid in Plants: Biosynthesis and Function

@article{Smirnoff2000AscorbicAI,
  title={Ascorbic Acid in Plants: Biosynthesis and Function},
  author={Nicholas Smirnoff and Glen L Wheeler},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
  year={2000},
  volume={35},
  pages={291 - 314}
}
ABSTRACT Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an abundant component of plants. It reaches a concentration of over 20 mM in chloroplasts and occurs in all cell compartments, including the cell wall. It has proposed functions in photosynthesis as an enzyme cofactor (including synthesis of ethylene, gibberellins and anthocyanins) and in control of cell growth. A biosynthetic pathway via GDP-mannose, GDP-L-galactose, L-galactose, and L-galactono-1,4-lactone has been proposed only recently and is supported… Expand
Biosynthesis and Regulation of Ascorbic Acid in Plants
Ascorbate is the most abundant water-soluble redox compound in plants and has multiple functions as a redox buffer. There is compelling genetic evidence that the biosynthesis of ascorbate proceedsExpand
Vitamin C: The Metabolism and Functions of Ascorbic Acid in Plants
TLDR
Ascorbate accumulation in Arabidopsis leaves is increased by high light along with expression and activity of l-galactose phosphorylase (VTC2), reflecting multiple roles in photosynthesis, including modulation of hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen, enzyme cofactor in the xanthophyll cycle and, speculatively, a photosystem II electron donor during photoinhibition. Expand
Evolution of the metabolic network leading to ascorbate synthesis and degradation using Marchantia polymorpha as a model system
In plants, l-ascorbic acid (AsA) is a functional enzyme cofactor, a major antioxidant, and a modulator of several biological processes including photosynthesis, photo-protection, cell wall growth andExpand
Chemistry and Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid in Plants
Ascorbic acid (ascorbate/AsA/vitamin C) is one of the most abundant and versatile biomolecules in plants and animals. In particular, AsA is present in high concentrations in the chloroplasts andExpand
L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development
TLDR
An overview of several technologies developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways as well as the consequences that changes in ascorBic acid Content have on plant growth and function are provided. Expand
Silencing of ascorbate oxidase results in reduced growth, altered ascorbic acid levels and ripening pattern in melon fruit.
TLDR
Support for the first time, the in vivo AO participation in the rapid fruit growth of Cucurbitaceae is supported and an alternative route for AA increase in ripening fruit is suggested. Expand
Ontogenetic changes in vitamin C in selected rice varieties.
TLDR
This study focuses on understanding how ascorbate levels are controlled in rice (Oryza sativa) during plant development and in response to light intensity and photoperiod and indicates that in rice asCorbate metabolism follows a different pattern compared to other species. Expand
Ascorbate as seen through plant evolution: the rise of a successful molecule?
TLDR
Ascorbate is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis, and a diversity of roles for ascorbate in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues of higher plants, as well as further functions the molecule may possess by looking at other species. Expand
Ascorbic Acid: A Potent Defender Against Environmental Stresses
TLDR
The review would provide insight on various aspects of ascorbic acid like biosynthesis, diverse functions with a particular reference to environmental stresses, update on new roles and manipulation of as Corbenic acid levels in the stresses plants through transgenic approaches. Expand
The role of ascorbic acid in the control of flowering time
TLDR
This review summarizes recent reports that investigate the effect of AA on flowering time and the onset of senescence and a model is proposed that may explain how AA influences flowering and senes cence both under long- and short-day conditions in Arabidopsis. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 243 REFERENCES
The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants
TLDR
The definition of this biosynthetic pathway should allow engineering of plants for increased ascorbate production, thus increasing their nutritional value and stress tolerance. Expand
THE FUNCTION AND METABOLISM OF ASCORBIC ACID IN PLANTS
TLDR
There is a need to increase the understanding of this enigmatic molecule since it could be involved in a wide range of important functions from antioxidant defence and photosynthesis to growth regulation. Expand
Genetic evidence for the role of GDP-mannose in plant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis.
TLDR
By using a combination of biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques, it is demonstrated that the VTC1 locus encodes a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (mannose-1-P guanyltransferase). Expand
Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.
TLDR
A novel AsA assay is used to isolate four vtc mutants that define three additional VTC loci, and a second mutant allele of VTC1 is isolated, providing strong evidence for the recently proposed role of GDP-mannose in AsA biosynthesis. Expand
L-Ascorbic Acid Metabolism in the Ascorbate-Deficient Arabidopsis Mutant vtc1
TLDR
The results from [U-14C]Glc labeling experiments suggest that the deficiency of the ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant vitamin c-1 is the result of a biosynthetic defect: less L-ascorbic acid as a percentage of total soluble 14C accumulates in vtc1 than in wild type. Expand
Ascorbate system in plant development
  • O. Arrigoni
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes
  • 1994
TLDR
It was possible to demonstrate that plant cells consume a high quantity of ascorbate (AA), and it was suggested here that AFR formed in this compartment may be involved in the enlargement of the ER membranes and provacuole acidification. Expand
Biosynthesis and metabolism of ascorbic acid in plants
The biosynthesis of L‐ascorbic acid in plants differs from that encountered in ascorbic acid‐synthesizing animals. Enzymic details are sparse, but in vivo studies with tracers clearly establish theExpand
A pathway for photosynthetic carbon flow to mannitol in celery leaves : activity and localization of key enzymes.
In the polyol producing plant, celery (Apium graveolens L.), mannitol is a major photosynthetic product and a form in which carbohydrate is translocated. Measurements of whole leaf extracts of celeryExpand
Ascorbate biosynthesis in mitochondria is linked to the electron transport chain between complexes III and IV.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that isolated intact mitochondria synthesize ascorbate in the presence of GL, and evidence suggests that GLDH delivers electrons to the mitochondrial electron transport chain between complexes III and IV. Expand
Environmental stress sensitivity of an ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.
TLDR
It is shown that the soz1 mutant is hypersensitive to both sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet B irradiation, thus implicating ascorbate in defense against varied environmental stresses and indicating that screening for ozone-sensitive mutants is a powerful method for identifying physiologically important antioxidant mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...