Brucellosis is a zoonosis still endemic in developing areas of the world. Focal complications of Brucellosis are well known and often troubling in the differential diagnosis. Gastrointestinal complications of Brucellosis are randomly reported, ascites being particularly rare, and usually in the context of a predisposing condition such as cirrhosis. We describe two cases of ascites attributed to Brucellosis, one in a previously healthy patient with an accompanying clinical picture of acute Brucellosis, in whom ascites reflected the response of the peritoneal mononuclear phagocytic system, and one in a HBsAg-positive, but not cirrhotic, patient, in whom Brucellosis seemed to act as a trigger effect for the development of ascites. Both cases of ascites were of an effusion type, with a predominantly lymphocytic cell count, and exhibited an excellent response to treatment with tetracycline and rifampicin.