AIM OF THE STUDY To indicate options in a surgical university team in Vietnam for treatment of ascaris-induced acute pancreatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS From January 1998 to April 2001, 33 patients (mean age 46 years) were admitted with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis based on elevated serum amylase in 29 patients (88%), and elevated urinary amylase in all patients and a compatible clinical picture. The pancreatic ultrasonography was abnormal in 79% of cases. Biliary and pancreatic ultrasonography shown ascaris in 31 patients (94%). In other two patients ascaris was detected with duodenal endoscopy. RESULTS In 24 patients, the worms from the duodenum and/or across the ampullary orifice was trapped and withdrawn during duodenoscopy and failed in three patients. Nine patients were operated on, three after failure of endoscopic treatment, five for lithiasis of the common bile duct associated to the ascariasis, and one for necrotic pancreatitis. Seven patients operated on underwent a choledocotomy with a T-tube drainage, two patients underwent a left pancreatectomy to withdraw the ascaris, and one patient a resection of pancreatic necrosis. All patients recovered without complications except the patient with a necrotic pancreatitis who developed a pancreatic fistula for 23 days. Mean discharge times were 5.6 days after endoscopic treatment and 12.2 days after surgery. Effective antihelminthic therapy was administered in all patients. CONCLUSION Endoscopic treatment was effective in 24 out of 33 patients. Surgery was indicated for failures of endoscopic treatment, association of ascariasis and common bile duct stones, migration of ascaris in intra pancreatic duct, and pancreatic necrosis.