Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a potential tumour suppressor in pituitary adenomas

@article{Formosa2017ArylHR,
  title={Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a potential tumour suppressor in pituitary adenomas},
  author={Robert Formosa and Joseph Borg and Josanne Vassallo},
  journal={Endocrine-Related Cancer},
  year={2017},
  volume={24},
  pages={445 - 457}
}
Pituitary adenomas (PA) represent the largest group of intracranial neoplasms and yet the molecular mechanisms driving this disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to use a high-throughput screening method to identify molecular pathways that may be playing a significant and consistent role in PA. RNA profiling using microarrays on eight local PAs identified the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway as a key canonical pathway downregulated in all PA types. This was… 

Tables from this paper

Somatic Deletion in Exon 10 of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Gene in Human GH-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
TLDR
This is the first demonstration of a recurrent somatic deletion in the exon 10 of the AHR gene in somatotropinomas, and the functional impact of this genetic finding needs to be clarified.
AhR and Cancer: From Gene Profiling to Targeted Therapy
TLDR
The role of AhR is explored in tumor cell lines and patients using genomic data sets and the extent to which AhR can be considered as a therapeutic target is discussed.
The Dual Function of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Bladder Carcinogenesis
TLDR
The results suggest that AhR may be essential for the initiation of carcinogenesis and attenuated the invasion of BC cells; this signaling may have a dual function in bladder carcinogenesis.
AhR and Cancer: from Gene Profiling to Targeted Therapy
TLDR
The role of AhR is explored in tumor cell lines and patients using genomic data sets and the extent to which AhR can be considered as a therapeutic target is discussed.
The Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) in Brain Tumors
TLDR
Current knowledge about AhR in relation to brain tumors is summarized and an overview of AhR’s potential as a therapeutic target is provided.
A putative role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene in a patient with cyclical Cushing’s disease
TLDR
The preliminary data suggest that the highly conserved AHR gene may represent a link between pituitary tumorigenesis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the clock system.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a prognostic biomarker and is correlated with immune responses in cervical cancer
TLDR
Findings suggest that AHR and CYP1A1 may serve as prognostic biomarkers for determining prognosis and immune infiltration in cervical cancer.
GSTP1 gene methylation and AHR rs2066853 variant predict resistance to first generation somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly
TLDR
In acromegaly, GSTP1 gene methylation associates with resistance to SSA treatment, especially in patients carrying also the AHR rs2066853 variant, and with increased prevalence of colonic polyps and diabetes mellitus.
The roles of AIP and GPR101 in familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
TLDR
Management of pituitary adenomas in the setting of FIPA, AIP mutations and GPR101 duplications is often more complex than in sporadic disease due to early onset disease, aggressive tumor growth and resistance to medical therapy.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES
Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR-interacting protein in pituitary adenomas: pathological and clinical implications.
TLDR
Down-regulation of AIP and AHR may be involved in the aggressiveness of somatotrophinomas and data obtained on AHR expression suggest that AHR signalling may be differentially affected according to PA phenotype.
Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cancer.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor functions as a tumor suppressor of liver carcinogenesis.
TLDR
The role of Ahr ablation in liver tumorigenesis induced by the genotoxic chemical diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a hepatic carcinogen that is not an AHR ligand, is examined to support the concept that in its basal state in the absence of a xenobiotic ligands, the Ahr gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene, and that its silencing may be associated with cancer progression.
An endogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor
TLDR
Evidence is provided for a previously unidentified pathophysiological function of the AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumours via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology.
The dioxin receptor is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia through inhibition of Sp1 binding.
TLDR
ChIP showed that methylation impaired binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to the AhR promoter, thus providing a mechanism for AhR downregulation in REH cells, and promoter hypermethylation represents a novel epigenetic mechanism downregulating AhR activity in hematological malignancies such as ALL.
AIP mutations impair AhR signaling in pituitary adenoma patients fibroblasts and in GH3 cells.
TLDR
This study of human fibroblasts bearing endogenous heterozygous AIP mutations and transfected pituitary GH3 cells shows that A IP mutations affect the AIP protein level and alter AhR transcriptional activity in a gene- and tissue-dependent manner.
A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces stomach tumors
TLDR
A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor expressed in transgenic mice reduced the life span of the mice and induced tumors in the glandular part of the stomach, demonstrating the oncogenic potential of the AhR and implicating the receptor in regulation of cell proliferation.
Differential gene expression in pituitary adenomas by oligonucleotide array analysis.
TLDR
Expression array analysis of pituitary adenomas using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A arrays appears to be a valid method of identifying genes that may be important in tumour pathogenesis.
A Direct Interaction between the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Retinoblastoma Protein
TLDR
Observations provide a mechanistic insight into AhR-mediated cell cycle arrest and a new perspective on TCDD-induced toxicity.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...