Artificial muscle technology: physical principles and naval prospects

@article{Madden2004ArtificialMT,
  title={Artificial muscle technology: physical principles and naval prospects},
  author={John David Wyndham Madden and Nathan A. Vandesteeg and Patrick A. Anquetil and Peter G. Madden and A. Takshi and Rachel Z. Pytel and Serge R. Lafontaine and Paul Andrew Wieringa and Ian W. Hunter},
  journal={IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering},
  year={2004},
  volume={29},
  pages={706-728}
}
The increasing understanding of the advantages offered by fish and insect-like locomotion is creating a demand for muscle-like materials capable of mimicking nature's mechanisms. Actuator materials that employ voltage, field, light, or temperature driven dimensional changes to produce forces and displacements are suggesting new approaches to propulsion and maneuverability. Fundamental properties of these new materials are presented, and examples of potential undersea applications are examined… 

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  • J. MaddenP. MaddenI. Hunter
  • Materials Science
    SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring
  • 2001
Conducting polymer actuators generate forces that exceed those of mammalian skeletal muscle by up to two orders of magnitude for a given cross-sectional area, require only a few volts to operate, and
...