Artificial muscle technology: physical principles and naval prospects

  title={Artificial muscle technology: physical principles and naval prospects},
  author={John David Wyndham Madden and Nathan A. Vandesteeg and Patrick A. Anquetil and Peter G. Madden and A. Takshi and Rachel Z. Pytel and Serge R. Lafontaine and Paul Andrew Wieringa and Ian W. Hunter},
  journal={IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering},
The increasing understanding of the advantages offered by fish and insect-like locomotion is creating a demand for muscle-like materials capable of mimicking nature's mechanisms. Actuator materials that employ voltage, field, light, or temperature driven dimensional changes to produce forces and displacements are suggesting new approaches to propulsion and maneuverability. Fundamental properties of these new materials are presented, and examples of potential undersea applications are examined… 

Dielectric Elastomer Artificial Muscle: Materials Innovations and Device Explorations.

This Account covers important research by this group and others in various avenues such as decreasing viscoelastic losses in typical DE materials, increasing their dielectric constant, and countering electromechanical instability, as well as noteworthy applications, including several novel devices for soft robotics and microfluidics, and how they fit within other major developments in the field.

Current and future developments in artificial muscles using electroactive polymers

For developers of future medical devices, electroactive polymers are offering numerous advantages for their flexibility, fracture toughness and controllability, as well as low mass and low power requirements.

Artificial Muscles: Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges

The structure, actuation mechanism, applications, and limitations of recently developed artificial muscles, including highly oriented semicrystalline polymer fibers; nanocomposite actuators; twisted nanofiber yarns; thermally activated shape-memory alloys; ionic-polymer/metal composites; dielectric-elastomer actuator; and pneumatic actuators are discussed.

Torsional artificial muscles

Large stroke torsional actuators are the newest class of artificial muscle technology that produces rotary motion or generate torque in response to various stimuli. A number of materials comprising

New types of McKibben artificial muscles

A new contractile artificial muscle system is introduced than can offer most of the above requirements to satisfy the current expectations of these devices and also represents some potential future works.

Carbon‐Nanotube‐Reinforced Polyaniline Fibers for High‐Strength Artificial Muscles

Actuating materials capable of producing useful movement and forces are recognized as the “missing link” in the development of a wide range of frontier technologies including haptic devices,

Robotic Artificial Muscles: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

Important characteristics and considerations in the selection, design, and implementation of various prominent and unique robotic artificial muscles for biomimetic robots are discussed, and perspectives on next-generation muscle-powered robots are provided.

On the Control and Properties of Supercoiled Polymer Artificial Muscles

This paper describes the working principle of supercoiled polymer (SCP) actuation and explores the controllability and properties of these threads, showing that under appropriate environmental conditions, the threads are suitable as a building block for a controllable artificial muscle.

Realizing the potential of dielectric elastomer artificial muscles

A soft composite DEA made of strain-stiffening elastomers and carbon nanotube electrodes is reported, which demonstrates a peak energy density close to the upper limit for natural muscle, making these DEAs the highest-performance electrically driven soft artificial muscles demonstrated to date.

Progress and Current Status of Materials and Properties of Soft Actuators

In this chapter, brief history and current status of soft actuators made of various materials driven by different stimuli are described with typical references as milestones of the progress. The soft



Conducting polymer artificial muscles

Dielectric elastomer artificial muscle actuators: toward biomimetic motion

Testing with experimental biological techniques and apparatus has confirmed that these dielectric elastomer artificial muscles can indeed reproduce several of the important characteristics of natural muscle.

Conducting polymer actuators as engineering materials

Conducting polymer actuators were first proposed more than ten years ago. Reported performance has improved dramatically, particularly in the past few years, due to changes in synthesis methods,

Application of Dielectric Elastomer EAP Actuators

Electroactive polymers (EAPs) that are suitable for actuators undergo changes in size, shape, or stress state upon the application of an electrical stimulus. Much research in the field of EAPs tends

Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) as biomimetic sensors, actuators and artificial muscles - a review

This paper presents an introduction to ionic polymer-metal composites and some mathematical modeling pertaining to them. It further discusses a number of recent findings in connection with

Multifunctional electroelastomer roll actuators and their application for biomimetic walking robots

Dielectric elastomer artificial muscles (electroelastomers) have been shown to exhibit excellent performance in a variety of actuator configurations. By rolling highly prestrained electroelastomer

A comparison of muscle with artificial actuators

'Artificial' actuator technologies under development include shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, magnetostrictive actuators, contractile polymers and electrostatic actuators. The relevant

Giant lateral electrostriction in ferroelectric liquid-crystalline elastomers

A material is reported that shows a further increase in electrostriction by two orders of magnitude: ultrathin (less than 100 nanometres) ferroelectric liquid-crystalline elastomer films that exhibit 4 per cent strain at only 1.5 MV m-1.

Polypyrrole actuators: modeling and performance

  • J. MaddenP. MaddenI. Hunter
  • Materials Science
    SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring
  • 2001
Conducting polymer actuators generate forces that exceed those of mammalian skeletal muscle by up to two orders of magnitude for a given cross-sectional area, require only a few volts to operate, and