Artificial muscle: movement and position control.

@article{Otero2004ArtificialMM,
  title={Artificial muscle: movement and position control.},
  author={Toribio Fern{\'a}ndez Otero and Mar{\'i}a Teresa Cort{\'e}s},
  journal={Chemical communications},
  year={2004},
  volume={3},
  pages={284-5}
}
The movement of an all polymeric triple-layer artificial muscle based on polypyrrole (PPy) that work in aqueous solution was characterised. The magnitude and direction of the experimental current control both rate and direction of the movement. The described angle is a linear function of the consumed charge.