Artificial evolution of the morphology and kinematics in a flapping-wing mini-UAV.

@article{Margerie2007ArtificialEO,
  title={Artificial evolution of the morphology and kinematics in a flapping-wing mini-UAV.},
  author={Emmanuel de Margerie and Jean-Baptiste Mouret and St{\'e}phane Doncieux and J-A Meyer},
  journal={Bioinspiration & biomimetics},
  year={2007},
  volume={2 4},
  pages={65-82}
}
Birds demonstrate that flapping-wing flight (FWF) is a versatile flight mode, compatible with hovering, forward flight and gliding to save energy. This extended flight domain would be especially useful on mini-UAVs. However, design is challenging because aerodynamic efficiency is conditioned by complex movements of the wings, and because many interactions exist between morphological (wing area, aspect ratio) and kinematic parameters (flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, wing unfolding). Here… CONTINUE READING