Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread

@article{Haines2014ArtificialMF,
  title={Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread},
  author={Carter S. Haines and M{\'a}rcio D. Lima and Na Li and Geoffrey M. Spinks and Javad Foroughi and John David Wyndham Madden and Shi-Hyeong Kim and Shaoli Fang and M{\^o}nica Jung de Andrade and Fatma G{\"o}ktepe and {\"O}zer G{\"o}ktepe and Seyed M. Mirvakili and Sina Naficy and Xavier Lepr{\'o} and Jiyoung Oh and Mikhail E. Kozlov and Seon Jeong Kim and Xiuru Xu and Benjamin J. Swedlove and Gordon G. Wallace and Ray H. Baughman},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={343},
  pages={868 - 872}
}
The high cost of powerful, large-stroke, high-stress artificial muscles has combined with performance limitations such as low cycle life, hysteresis, and low efficiency to restrict applications. [...] Key Result Large-stroke tensile actuation was theoretically and experimentally shown to result from torsional actuation.Expand
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