Artificial Fishes: Autonomous Locomotion, Perception, Behavior, and Learning in a Simulated Physical World

  title={Artificial Fishes: Autonomous Locomotion, Perception, Behavior, and Learning in a Simulated Physical World},
  author={Demetri Terzopoulos and Xiaoyuan Tu and Radek Grzeszczuk},
  journal={Artificial Life},
This article develops artificial life patterned after animals as evolved as those in the superclass Pisces. It demonstrates a virtual marine world inhabited by realistic artificial fishes. Our algorithms emulate not only the appearance, movement, and behavior of individual animals, but also the complex group behaviors evident in many aquatic ecosystems. We model each animal holistically. An artificial fish is an autonomous agent situated in a simulated physical world. The agent has (a) a three… 

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We present a learning technique that automatically syn- thesizes realistic locomotion for the animation of physics-based models of animals. The method is especially suitable for animals with highly

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This work proposes and demonstrates a new paradigm for active vision research that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics, and describes an initial animat vision implementation within lifelike artificial fishes inhabiting a physics-based, virtual marine world.

Phototaxic Foraging of the Archaepaddler, a Hypothetical Deep-Sea Species

An autonomous agent (animat, hypothetical animal), called the (archae) paddler, is simulated in sufficient detail to regard its simulated aquatic locomotion (paddling) as physically possible and enables further testing of foraging strategies or vision and locomotion theories stemming either from biology or from robotics.

Visual simulations, artificial animals and virtual ecosystems.

selected work in computer animation, of particular interest to biologists, includes animated simulations of legged locomotion, flexible-bodied animals swimming and crawling, artificial fish in virtual ecosystems, automated learning of swimming and the evolution of virtual creatures with respect to morphology, locomotion and behaviour.

Evolution and Development of a Central Pattern Generator for the Swimming of a Lamprey

A fitness function is defined, based on several simulations of the controller with different commands settings, that rewards the capacity of modulating the speed and the direction of swimming in response to simple, varying input signals.

Animating predator and prey fish interactions

A fish school escape behavior model that can simulate 12 fish escape maneuvers identified in biological studies and can free an animator from dealing with the low‐level animations but instead controls the fish behavior on a higher level by modifying a state machine and a small set of system parameters.



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Simulation of adaptive behavior in animats: review and prospect

A closing section addresses directions in which it would be desirable to see future research oriented, so as to provide something other than proofs of principle or ad hoc solutions to specific problems, however interesting such proofs or solutions may be in their own right.

Interaction and intelligent behavior

A novel formulation of reinforcement learning is proposed that makes behavior selection learnable in noisy, uncertain multi-agent environments with stochastic dynamics, and enables and accelerates learning in complex multi-robot domains.

From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (1st) Held in Paris, France on 24-28 September 1990

This report includes the program and abstracts from the conference, the table of contents from the resulting book, and various organizational principles on architectures capable of inducing adaptive behavior in real or artificial animals.

The motion dynamics of snakes and worms

Legless figures such as snakes and worms are modelled as mass-spring systems and muscle contractions are simulated by animating the spring tensions and various modes of locomotion are described.

Animal Behaviour

  • E. P.
  • Psychology
  • 1901
THIS interesting and highly suggestive work grew out of an attempt to revise the author's “Animal Life and Intelligence.” It was found that “the amended treatment would not fall conveniently under

Vehicles, Experiments in Synthetic Psychology

These imaginative thought experiments are the inventions of one of the world's eminent brain researchers. They are "vehicles," a series of hypothetical, self-operating machines that exhibit

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A research methodology is proposed for understanding intelligence through simulation of artificial animals (“animats”) in progressively more challenging environments while retaining characteristics

Intelligence as Adaptive Behavior: An Experiment in Computational Neuroethology

The Artificial Insect: Locomotion Controller, Lesion Studies, and Behavioral Choice - Discussion.

Robot vision

  • Y. J. Tejwani
  • Physics
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems,
  • 1989
A scheme is developed for classifying the types of motion perceived by a humanlike robot and equations, theorems, concepts, clues, etc., relating the objects, their positions, and their motion to their images on the focal plane are presented.