ArtR, a novel sRNA of Staphylococcus aureus, regulates α-toxin expression by targeting the 5′ UTR of sarT mRNA

  title={ArtR, a novel sRNA of Staphylococcus aureus, regulates $\alpha$-toxin expression by targeting the 5′ UTR of sarT mRNA},
  author={Ting Xue and Xu Zhang and Haipeng Sun and Baolin Sun},
  journal={Medical Microbiology and Immunology},
Recent studies point to the importance of small-noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial virulence control. In Staphylococcus aureus, functional dissections of sRNAs are limited to RNA III, SprD, RsaE, SprA1, and SSR42 only. Here, we report the identification and functional analyses of a novel sRNA, which we have designated ArtR. Our data show that the AgrA protein can bind to the artR promoter and repress artR transcription, suggesting that, after RNA III, ArtR is the second sRNA regulated by AgrA… 

Insights into the regulation of small RNA expression: SarA represses the expression of two sRNAs in Staphylococcus aureus

This work demonstrates that SarA TF represses srn_3610_sprC transcription and suggests that some S. aureus sRNAs belong to the same regulon and act jointly in responding to environmental changes.

Expanding the Staphylococcus aureus SarA Regulon to Small RNAs

High-throughput expression screening methods combined with binding assays and bioinformatics for an in-depth investigation of the SarA regulon and combinatory analysis gives a snapshot of the regulation, whereas bioinformatic analysis reveals a permanent view of targets based on sequence.

Contribution of teg49 Small RNA in the 5′ Upstream Transcriptional Region of sarA to Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

It is concluded that teg49, embedded within the extended promoter regions of sarA, is modulated by sigB and cshA and plays an important trans-acting role in modulating the transcription and ensuing expression of SarA.

sRNA and cis-antisense sRNA identification in Staphylococcus aureus highlights an unusual sRNA gene cluster with one encoding a secreted peptide

Using comparative genomics, it is shown that genetic organization of the srn_9342-9346 locus is specific to Newman and that its expression is growth-phase dependent and subjected to nutrient deprivation and oxidative stress.

Teg58, a small regulatory RNA, is involved in regulating arginine biosynthesis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

It is suggested that teg58 is a regulatory sRNA that plays an important role in modulating arginine biosynthesis and biofilm formation in S. aureus.

The Mechanisms of Virulence Regulation by Small Noncoding RNAs in Low GC Gram-Positive Pathogens

The targets and currently known mechanisms of trans-acting sRNAs involved in virulence regulation in various gram-positive pathogens are outlined.

Enhancement of the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman by a small noncoding RNA SprX1

Increased level of the regulatory RNA, namely RNAIII, that comprises Hld mRNA and also regulates the biofilm formation, indicates that SprX1 may also function through RNAIII for regulating virulence factors.

The Staphylococcus aureus Protein-Coding Gene gdpS Modulates sarS Expression via mRNA-mRNA Interaction

It is found that gdpS functioned through direct RNA-RNA base pairing with the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of sarS mRNA and that a putative 18-nucleotide region played a significant role in the regulatory process.

Thirty Years of sRNA-Mediated Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus: From Initial Discoveries to In Vivo Biological Implications

This review reports 30 years of S. aureus sRNA studies, from their discovery to the in-depth characterizations of some of them, and discusses their actual in vivo contribution, which is still lagging behind, and their place within the complex regulatory network.

Identification of RNAIII-binding proteins in Staphylococcus aureus using tethered RNAs and streptavidin aptamers based pull-down assay

This study suggests that some proteins can bind to RNA III in S. aureus, and may be involved in RNA III function, and tRSA based pull-down assay is an effective method to search for RBPs in bacteria, which should facilitate the identification and functional study ofRBPs in diverse bacterial species.



A Staphylococcus aureus Small RNA Is Required for Bacterial Virulence and Regulates the Expression of an Immune-Evasion Molecule

It is demonstrated that SprD negatively regulates the expression of the Sbi immune-evasion molecule, impairing both the adaptive and innate host immune responses, and prevents translation initiation of sbi mRNA by an antisense mechanism.

Experimental discovery of small RNAs in Staphylococcus aureus reveals a riboregulator of central metabolism

A combination of biocomputational and transcriptional analyses revealed a remarkably coordinated RsaE-dependent downregulation of numerous metabolic enzymes involved in the citrate cycle and the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism.

Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII Binds to Two Distant Regions of coa mRNA to Arrest Translation and Promote mRNA Degradation

This study validates another direct target of RNAIII that plays a role in virulence and illustrates the diversity of RNA III-mRNA topologies and how these multiple RNAIII-m RNA interactions would mediate virulence regulation.

Characterization of SSR42, a Novel Virulence Factor Regulatory RNA That Contributes to the Pathogenesis of a Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Representative

Western blotting and functional assays indicated that the regulatory effects of SSR42 correlate with biologically significant changes in corresponding protein abundances, which indicate that SSR 42 is a novel S. aureus regulatory RNA molecule that contributes to the organism's ability to cause disease.

A search for small noncoding RNAs in Staphylococcus aureus reveals a conserved sequence motif for regulation

This study unexpectedly shows that most of the novel ncRNAs carried in Staphylococcus aureus carry the conserved C−rich motif, suggesting that they are members of a class of nc RNAs that target mRNAs by a shared mechanism.

Activation of alpha‐toxin translation in Staphylococcus aureus by the trans‐encoded antisense RNA, RNAIII.

It is shown that in a mutant lacking RNAIII the rate of alpha‐toxin production relative to the cellular concentration of hla mRNA was reduced 10‐fold as compared with the wild‐type strain, the first example of an ‘antisense RNA’ that stimulates translation of the target mRNA.

Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII coordinately represses the synthesis of virulence factors and the transcription regulator Rot by an antisense mechanism.

It is shown that the 3' domain of RNAIII coordinately represses at the post-transcriptional level, the expression of mRNAs that encode a class of virulence factors that act early in the infection process.

Small RNA genes expressed from Staphylococcus aureus genomic and pathogenicity islands with specific expression among pathogenic strains.

  • C. PichonB. Felden
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
In vitro binding assays indicate that one sRNA encoded within a pathogenicity island is a trans-encoded antisense RNA regulating the expression of target genes at the posttranscriptional level, suggesting that they are involved in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence.

Deep Sequencing Analysis of Small Noncoding RNA and mRNA Targets of the Global Post-Transcriptional Regulator, Hfq

This work found that the mRNAs of hilD (master regulator of the SPI-1 invasion genes) and flhDC (flagellar master regulator) were bound by Hfq, and presented a generic strategy that is ideal for the systems-level analysis of the post-transcriptional regulons of RNA-binding proteins and for sRNA discovery in a wide range of bacteria.

Inhibition of rot translation by RNAIII, a key feature of agr function

It is confirmed that Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII regulates the synthesis of a major pleiotropic transcription factor, Rot, by blocking its translation, and proposed that the RNAIII–rot mRNA interaction plays a key role in agr regulation of staphylitis virulence.