Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism.

@article{Stolz2006ArsenicAS,
  title={Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism.},
  author={John F. Stolz and Partha Basu and Joanne M. Santini and Ronald S. Oremland},
  journal={Annual review of microbiology},
  year={2006},
  volume={60},
  pages={
          107-30
        }
}
Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic… 

Figures from this paper

The physiology and evolution of microbial selenium metabolism.
TLDR
This review offers a comprehensive overview of the physiology and evolution of both assimilatory and dissimilatory selenium metabolism in bacteria and archaea, highlighting mechanisms of seenium respiration.
Microbial responses to environmental arsenic
TLDR
This short review highlights recent studies in ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these processes in bacteria, and provides some examples of genetic engineering for enhanced arsenic accumulation based on phytochelatins or metallothionein-like proteins.
REGULATION OF ARSENIC METABOLIC PATHWAYS IN PROKARYOTES
TLDR
This chapter presents a summary of the genes and enzymes for arsenate respiration and arsenite oxidation, and how these approaches could be used to determine the occurrence of “hot spots” for biologically mediated arsenate reduction.
Arsenic Metabolism in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Microbes
TLDR
An understanding of the molecular details of metalloid transport systems and detoxification enzymes is essential for the rational design of new drugs, and for treating drug-resistant microorganisms and tumor cells.
Ecology and Biotechnology of Selenium-Respiring Bacteria
TLDR
This review focuses on microorganisms that use selenate and selenite as terminal electron acceptors, in parallel to the well-studied sulfate-reducing bacteria, and overviews the significant advancements made in recent years on the role of SeRB in the biological selenium cycle.
Linking selenium biogeochemistry to the sulfur-dependent biological detoxification of arsenic.
TLDR
This work proposes a scenario where SelD and SelU proteins, commonly used to make selenophosphate and modify transfer RNA, have been recruited to make monothioarsenate, a relatively innocuous arsenical.
Microbial selenium metabolism: A brief history, biogeochemistry and ecophysiology.
TLDR
This review begins with a historical overview for how research in both aspects of selenium metabolism has developed, and provides an overview of the global seenium biogeochemical cycle, emphasizing the central role of microorganisms in the cycle.
Mechanisms of bacterial degradation of arsenic
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists in two major forms (arsenate and arsenite). The anthropogenic activities of man are its major source in the environment. Bacteria have developed resistance
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 171 REFERENCES
Microbial transformation of elements: the case of arsenic and selenium
  • J. Stolz, P. Basu, R. Oremland
  • Biology
    International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • 2002
TLDR
The occurrence of multiple mechanisms involving different enzymes for arsenic and selenium transformation indicates several different evolutionary pathways and underscores the environmental significance and selective impact in microbial evolution of these two elements.
Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium.
TLDR
The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichment culture suggest that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature.
Enzymatic methylation of arsenic species and other new approaches to arsenic toxicity.
  • H. Aposhian
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1997
TLDR
A hypothesis that the lack of arsenite methyltransferases may have had an evolutionary advantage for certain species is proposed.
[Selenium methylation and toxicity mechanism of selenocystine].
TLDR
This review summarized recent studies on the toxicity mechanism of selenocystine in experimental animals and found that accumulation of the hydrogen selenide resulting from inhibition of the selenium methylation metabolism, detoxification metabolic pathway of seenium, is found in animals following repeated administration of a toxic dose of selecystine.
Microbial arsenic: from geocycles to genes and enzymes.
TLDR
The DNA sequencing and protein crystal structures have established the convergent evolution of three classes of arsenate reductases, which involve three cysteine thiols and S-As bond intermediates, so convergence evolution to similar mechanisms has taken place.
Environmental microbes can speciate and cycle arsenic.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that microorganisms can cycle arsenic in response to dynamic environmental conditions, thereby affecting the speciation, and hence mobility and toxicity of arsenic in the environment.
Arsenic detoxification and evolution of trimethylarsine gas by a microbial arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase
TLDR
A mechanism of arsenite [As(III)]resistance through methylation and subsequent volatization is described, and this microbial-mediated transformation is proposed to have an important impact on the global arsenic cycle.
The Ecology of Arsenic
TLDR
This work reviews what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature and investigates their role in aquifers.
Selenate Reduction to Elemental Selenium by Anaerobic Bacteria in Sediments and Culture: Biogeochemical Significance of a Novel, Sulfate-Independent Respiration
TLDR
Results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenia oxyanions in anoxic sediments and suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenio-oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...