Although exposure to arsenic (As) induces neurotoxic changes, there is a lack of data regarding its specific effects on neurotransmission, particularly dopaminergic neurotransmission. In this study, the dopamine content and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors (DRs) were examined in the striatum and cerebral cortex of the mouse brain following the administration of As (1–100 mg/L NaAsO2 in drinking water). After 3 weeks, significantly decreased TH expression and dopamine content, both in the striatum and the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 100 mg/L As, were observed when compared with controls. Although DR expression was similar in the cerebral cortex of As-treated mice, DRD1 to DRD4 expression significantly increased in the striatum of 100 mg/L As-exposed mice. These data indicate that altered dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to As-induced neurotoxic effects.