Arsenic(III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California

@article{Kulp2008ArsenicIIIFA,
  title={Arsenic(III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California},
  author={Thomas R. Kulp and Shelley E. Hoeft and Marie Asao and Michael T. Madigan and James T. Hollibaugh and Jenny C. Fisher and John F. Stolz and Charles W. Culbertson and Laurence G Miller and Ronald S. Oremland},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={321},
  pages={967 - 970}
}
Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like… Expand
Coupled Arsenotrophy in a Hot Spring Photosynthetic Biofilm at Mono Lake, California
TLDR
Interestingly, no authentic PCR products for arsenite oxidase (aoxB) were obtained, despite observing aerobic arsenite oxidation activity, which demonstrates close linkages of these arsenic redox processes occurring within these biofilms. Expand
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What has been learned by investigations undertaken in three soda lakes of the western USA and from the physiological characterizations of the relevant bacteria is reviewed, which include the critical genes involved, such as respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and the discovery of its arsenite-oxidizing counterpart (arxA). Expand
Comment on "Arsenic (III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California"
TLDR
This work challenges the proposition that As(V) reductase was responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of As(III) in the Archean based on paleogeochemical, bioenergetic, and phylogenetic arguments. Expand
Environmental Microbiology: Arsenic in action
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The findings suggest that the history of prokaryotic arsenate respiration should be re-evaluated and that organisms in other environments, such as the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, United States, may also be able to carry out the anoxygenic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), thereby broadening the ecological importance of this phenomenon. Expand
The genetic basis of anoxygenic photosynthetic arsenite oxidation
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The role of arxA in photosynthetic arsenite oxidation was confirmed by disrupting the gene in a representative photoarsenotrophic bacterium, resulting in the loss of light-dependent arsenites oxidation. Expand
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The metabolic pathway of oxygenic photosynthesis is fueled by sunlight and the oxidation of water; oxygen is produced as a waste product. Before the rise of oxygenic phototrophs 2.3 billion yearsExpand
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The importance of eukaryotic microorganisms to the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in geothermal systems is illustrated, a molecular explanation for how these algae tolerate arsenic in their environment is offered, and the characterization of algal methyltransferases is provided. Expand
Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea
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The discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina is reported. Expand
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This study reports successful amplification of 302 arrA gene sequences from near-surface Cambodian soils (without prior enrichment or stimulation with carbon amendments), where a large majority formed a well-supported clade that is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported sequences from Cambodia and other South and Southeast Asian sediments. Expand
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