Arsenic(III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California

@article{Kulp2008ArsenicIIIFA,
  title={Arsenic(III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California},
  author={Thomas R. Kulp and Shelley E. Hoeft and Marie Asao and Michael T. Madigan and James Timothy Hollibaugh and Jenny C. Fisher and John F. Stolz and Charles W. Culbertson and Laurence G Miller and Ronald S. Oremland},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={321},
  pages={967 - 970}
}
Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like… 
Coupled Arsenotrophy in a Hot Spring Photosynthetic Biofilm at Mono Lake, California
TLDR
Interestingly, no authentic PCR products for arsenite oxidase (aoxB) were obtained, despite observing aerobic arsenite oxidation activity, which demonstrates close linkages of these arsenic redox processes occurring within these biofilms.
Autotrophic microbial arsenotrophy in arsenic-rich soda lakes.
TLDR
What has been learned by investigations undertaken in three soda lakes of the western USA and from the physiological characterizations of the relevant bacteria is reviewed, which include the critical genes involved, such as respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and the discovery of its arsenite-oxidizing counterpart (arxA).
Comment on "Arsenic (III) Fuels Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Hot Spring Biofilms from Mono Lake, California"
TLDR
This work challenges the proposition that As(V) reductase was responsible for the anaerobic oxidation of As(III) in the Archean based on paleogeochemical, bioenergetic, and phylogenetic arguments.
Environmental Microbiology: Arsenic in action
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The findings suggest that the history of prokaryotic arsenate respiration should be re-evaluated and that organisms in other environments, such as the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, United States, may also be able to carry out the anoxygenic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), thereby broadening the ecological importance of this phenomenon.
The genetic basis of anoxygenic photosynthetic arsenite oxidation
TLDR
The role of arxA in photosynthetic arsenite oxidation was confirmed by disrupting the gene in a representative photoarsenotrophic bacterium, resulting in the loss of light-dependent arsenites oxidation.
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A robust microbial community capable of oxidizing Mn(II) in the absence of molecular oxygen is found, suggesting this process occurs in source environment.
Biotransformation of arsenic by a Yellowstone thermoacidophilic eukaryotic alga
TLDR
The importance of eukaryotic microorganisms to the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in geothermal systems is illustrated, a molecular explanation for how these algae tolerate arsenic in their environment is offered, and the characterization of algal methyltransferases is provided.
Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea
TLDR
The discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina is reported.
Anoxygenic photosynthesis and iron–sulfur metabolic potential of Chlorobia populations from seasonally anoxic Boreal Shield lakes
TLDR
The results provide an important basis for further probing the functional role of cyc2 and indicate that anoxygenic photoautotrophs in Boreal Shield lakes could have underexplored photophysiology pertinent to understanding Earth’s early microbial communities.
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