Arousal systems

  title={Arousal systems},
  author={Richard T. Marrocco and E. A. Witte and Matthew Davidson},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention
Evidence is summarized showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity.
Neuromodulation of Brain States
Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms
These findings explain how various drugs affect sleep and wakefulness, and provide the basis for a wide range of environmental influences to shape wake–sleep cycles into the optimal pattern for survival.
Modulation of Cortical Activation and Behavioral Arousal by Cholinergic and Orexinergic Systems
  • B. Jones
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
A recently discovered peptide called orexin (Orx) or hypocretin, contained in diffusely projecting neurons of the hypothalamus, was found to be essential for the maintenance of waking with muscle tone, since in its absence narcolepsy with cataplexy occurred.
Neuronal Mechanisms for Sleep/Wake Regulation and Modulatory Drive
This review discusses electrophysiological and behavioral features of sleep/wake states and the principal neuronal populations involved in their regulation, and describes the main modulatory drives of sleep and wakefulness, including homeostatic, circadian, and motivational processes.
Neuropeptide S selectively inhibits the release of 5‐HT and noradrenaline from mouse frontal cortex nerve endings
This work investigated the possible presynaptic regulation of transmitter release by Neuropeptide S, a recently identified neurotransmitter/neuromodulator able to increase arousal and wakefulness while decreasing anxiety‐like behaviour.
Optogenetic Investigation of Arousal Circuits
This review outlines the progress that has been made in the investigation of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application ofoptogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and discusses the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits.
Neurobiology of sleep.
halamocortical dynamics of sleep : Roles of purinergic neuromodulation
Thalamocortical sleep dynamics and their modulation by the ascending arousal system and halamocorticals circuitry are discussed.