Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains

@article{Hafele1972AroundtheWorldAC,
  title={Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains},
  author={J. C. Hafele and R. Keating},
  journal={Science},
  year={1972},
  volume={177},
  pages={168 - 170}
}
  • J. C. Hafele, R. Keating
  • Published 1972
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Science
  • Four cesium beam clocks flown around the world on commercial jet flights during October 1971, once eastward and once westward, recorded directionally dependent time differences which are in good agreement with predictions of conventional relativity theory. Relative to the atomic time scale of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the flying clocks lost 59 � 10 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and gained 273 � 7 nanoseconds during the westward trip, where the errors are the corresponding standard… CONTINUE READING
    234 Citations

    Topics from this paper

    Paper Mentions

    References

    SHOWING 1-10 OF 11 REFERENCES
    Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains
    • 389
    • PDF
    Cesium Beam Atomic Time and Frequency Standards
    • 49
    • PDF
    Atomic Time Scales
    • 17
    20390). 11 We thank the Office of Naval Research for providing funds for evaluating the performance and behavior of atomic clocks under flight conditions
    • Proceeditngs of the Third Aninual Precise Time and Time Interval Strategic Planning Meeting,
    • 1972
    We thank the Office of Naval Research for providing funds for evaluating the performance and behavior of atomic clocks under flight conditions
    • Fri,
    • 1972
    We refer herein to the local atomic time scale AT(A.1 MEAN USNO) as simply MEAN(USNO)
    • 1971
    J . C . Hafele
    • Amer . J . Phys .
    • 1970
    * Present address: Research Department, Caterpillar Tractor Co
    • SCIENCE
    The term "correlated rate-change" is meant to imply that the presence of cross correlations in the data permits identification of the clock which changed rate