Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains

  title={Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains},
  author={Joseph C. Hafele and Richard E. Keating},
  pages={168 - 170}
Four cesium beam clocks flown around the world on commercial jet flights during October 1971, once eastward and once westward, recorded directionally dependent time differences which are in good agreement with predictions of conventional relativity theory. Relative to the atomic time scale of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the flying clocks lost 59 � 10 nanoseconds during the eastward trip and gained 273 � 7 nanoseconds during the westward trip, where the errors are the corresponding standard… 

Around-the-World Relativistic Sagnac Experiment

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Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains

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Cesium Beam Atomic Time and Frequency Standards

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Atomic Time Scales

Techniques of construction of atomic time scales are discussed and experiments at the National Research Council using a group of commercial cesium standards and the NRC 2.1 m laboratory cesium

We refer herein to the local atomic time scale AT(A.1 MEAN USNO) as simply MEAN(USNO)

  • 1971

We thank the Office of Naval Research for providing funds for evaluating the performance and behavior of atomic clocks under flight conditions

  • Fri,
  • 1972

J . C . Hafele

  • Amer . J . Phys .
  • 1970

The term "correlated rate-change" is meant to imply that the presence of cross correlations in the data permits identification of the clock which changed rate

    We thank the Office of Naval Research for providing funds for evaluating the performance and behavior of atomic clocks under flight conditions. We appreciate the help of G

      20390). 11 We thank the Office of Naval Research for providing funds for evaluating the performance and behavior of atomic clocks under flight conditions

      • Proceeditngs of the Third Aninual Precise Time and Time Interval Strategic Planning Meeting,
      • 1972