Arolia in termites (Isoptera): functional significance and evolutionary loss

@article{Crosland2004AroliaIT,
  title={Arolia in termites (Isoptera): functional significance and evolutionary loss},
  author={Michael W. J. Crosland and Nan-Yao Su and Rudolf H. Scheffrahn},
  journal={Insectes Sociaux},
  year={2004},
  volume={52},
  pages={63-66}
}
Summary.Termite workers from all families examined had no arolia (=adhesive pads) on their tarsi and are unable to climb smooth vertical surfaces such as glass or polypropylene plastic. This contrasts with ants where both workers and alates of most species possess arolia and are able to climb these surfaces. Arolia were present in alates of the majority of species investigated from three of the four most basal termite families (Mastotermitidae, Termopsidae and Kalotermitidae), though absent… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

An Introduction to Termites: Biology, Taxonomy and Functional Morphology
TLDR
It is now clearly established that termites are a very specialised form of cockroach, with far more complex social systems than other cockroaches, and with a far wider range of diets. Expand
A Dark-Necked Drywood Termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in Italy: Description of Kalotermes italicus sp. nov.
TLDR
The yellow-necked drywood termite, Kalotermes flavicollis (F), so called due to the yellow pronotum of its alates, is the only species in the genusKalotermes known for Europe and differs morphologically from the other Kaloterme species known for the circum-Mediterranean lands. Expand
The phylogenetic system of Mantodea (Insecta: Dictyoptera)
TLDR
It is shown that many morphological characters, e.g. the head processes, enlarged lateral lobes of the pronotum, lobes on the legs and on the abdomen, evolved convergently several times during the evolution of the praying mantises (Mantodea). Expand
Pretarsus structure in relation to climbing ability in the ants Brachyponera sennaarensis and Daceton armigerum
TLDR
The external and internal pretarsus structure of the ants Brachyponera sennaarensis and Daceton armigerum is studied in relation to their very different climbing ability to show clearly different morphological characteristics. Expand
Two functional types of attachment pads on a single foot in the Namibia bush cricket Acanthoproctus diadematus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)
Insects have developed different structures to adhere to surfaces. Most common are smooth and hairy attachment pads, while nubby pads have also been described for representatives of Mantophasmatodea,Expand
Progress in Organic Coatings
Many insects are considered to be pests and can be serious threats to buildings. Insecticides represent an effective way to control pest insects but are harmful to the environment. As anExpand
Molecular Basis Underlying Caste Differentiation in Termites
TLDR
This chapter provides examples of approaches to study the molecular bases of caste differentiation, and describes molecular biology approaches for gene and protein discovery and characterization, relevant genes and proteins that have been identified, and a contextual foundation on which genome sequencing can now be considered. Expand
Alternative Tasks of the Insect Arolium with Special Reference to Hymenoptera
Apterigous terrestrial insects walk over relatively flat surfaces the radii of curvature of which are not less in size than their bodies or legs. They grasp at the surface with claws of severalExpand
Slippery paints: Eco-friendly coatings that cause ants to slip
Abstract Many insects are considered to be pests and can be serious threats to buildings. Insecticides represent an effective way to control pest insects but are harmful to the environment. As anExpand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Termites and trees: a review of recent advances in termite phylogenetics
TLDR
Modern termite phylogenetics is critically reviewed, with an emphasis on tree topologies as phylogenetic hypotheses and the position of isoptera among the Dictyoptera and the family group relationships within the Isoptera. Expand
Adaptive features on the tarsi of cockroaches (Insecta: Dictyoptera)
Abstract Tarsi from 15 species of cockroaches were examined with the scanning electron microscope to detect features of taxonomic interest that might account for observed differences in the abilityExpand
Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Termites
TLDR
The present classification, as used since 1972, has been moderately stable but suffers from a lack of good defining synapomorphies for several groups and a rearrangement of taxa is desirable; recent advances in molecular techniques, cladistic analyses and increased cooperation among scientists employing disparate character sets suggest a resolution of these problems. Expand
Characterizing the Ancestors: Paedomorphosis and Termite Evolution
TLDR
It is suggested that the tempo and mode of their evolution confound efforts to determine the phylogenetic relationships among termites, mantids, and cockroaches, and that recognition of the connection between ontogeny and phylogeny in the Dictyoptera is essential to resolving some of the long standing issues regarding the phylogenetics origin and subsequent evolution of the included taxa. Expand
Slippery ant-plants and skilful climbers: selection and protection of specific ant partners by epicuticular wax blooms in Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae)
TLDR
The genus Macaranga represents one of the few cases known so far where epicuticular wax crystals are likely to have evolved in relation to insects and act as an ecological isolation mechanism for the sympiotic ants. Expand
Ultrastructure of attachment specializations of hexapods (Arthropoda): evolutionary patterns inferred from a revised ordinal phylogeny
TLDR
The analysis demonstrates, that similar structures (arolium, euplantulae, hairy tarsomeres) have evolved independently in several lineages, and some of them support monophyletic groups (e.g. Embioptera + Dermaptera; Dictyoptera + Phasmatodea; Hymenoptera+ Mecopterida; Neuropterida + Strepsiptera + Coleoptera). Expand
Phylogenetic status, distribution, and biogeography of Cryptocercus (Dictyoptera : Cryptocercidae)
TLDR
The traditional classification and proposed geographic time frame for evolution of this taxon are retained, supported by recent estimations of molecular evolution on endosymbionts and by geological evidence indicating a window of opportunity for transcontinental movement in North America for an insect with the ecological requirements of Cryptocercus. Expand
Cryptotermes chacoensis, a new species from native South American inland habitats (Isoptera : Kalotermitidae)
The imago and soldier castes of a new species, Cryptotermes chacoensis Roisin, are described from four series collected in the Gran Chaco. This species is remarkable for occurring in natural habitatsExpand
Functional morphology of the pretarsus in larval Thysanoptera
Legs of larval thrips differ in form and function from those of the adults. The tarsal depressor muscle and tibial gland of the adult are absent, the trochanter and tarsus are fused to the femur andExpand
ON THE OCCURRENCE OF AROLIA IN ANT FEET
TLDR
It is indicated that arolia are universally present in ants outside the subfamilies Ponerinae and Leptanillinae, and some ponerine groups possess arolIA, while others do not. Expand
...
1
2
3
...