Aristolochic acid binds covalently to the exocyclic amino group of purine nucleotides in DNA.


The plant extract aristolochic acid (AA) has been used as a herbal drug in many cultures since antiquity. In 1982 AA was shown to be mutagenic and a strong carcinogen in Wistar rats. The crude mixture consists of five nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acid derivatives with aristolochic acid I [AA I; 8-methoxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxyli c… (More)


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