Area-Perimeter Relation for Rain and Cloud Areas

  title={Area-Perimeter Relation for Rain and Cloud Areas},
  author={Shaun Lovejoy},
  pages={185 - 187}
  • S. Lovejoy
  • Published 9 April 1982
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • Science
Following Mandelbrot's theory of fractals, the area-perimeter relation is used to investigate the geometry of satellite- and radar-determined cloud and rain areas between 1 and 1.2 x 106 square kilometers. The data are well fit by a formula in which the perimeter is given approximately by the square root of the area raised to the power D [See equation in the PDF], where D is interpreted as the fractal dimension of the perimeter. It is concluded that rain and cloud perimeters are fractals—they… 
The perimeter-area fractal model and its application to geology
Perimeters and areas of similarly shaped fractal geometries in two-dimensional space are related to one another by power-law relationships. The exponents obtained from these power laws are associated
Fractal Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Distributions for Radar Rain
he temporal and spatial distributions for radar rain can be analysed by fractal theory. The fractal dimensions of the storm are calculated by the box counting with an average 1.38 for the perimeters
Classification and dynamics of tropical clouds by their fractal dimension
The fractal dimension estimated as the area–perimeter relation constitutes a tool for the characterization of clouds. In this article, we apply it for the first time to study the separation of cirrus
Landsat Observations of Fractal Cloud Structure
LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, with 30m spatial resolution, has been employed to study the spatial structure of boundary-layer and ITCZ clouds. Statistical parameters characterizing the cloud
Fractal Analysis of Cloud Shapes
Water vapor images of clouds over the Indian Ocean region captured by the geostationary meteorological satellite METEOSAT-7 during the period of 2008 August to 2009 July were used and the fractal dimensions of cloud shapes have been calculated using the area-perimeter relationship and the box-counting method.
Fractal Analysis of Cloud Shapes
A study was carried out to investigate the fractal properties of cloud shapes. Water vapor images of clouds over the Indian Ocean region captured by the geostationary meteorological satellite
A fractal analysis of shadowed and sunlit areas
Abstract Analyses of remote-sensing imagery from a fractal perspective have become more frequent in the literature. However, one aspect which has not been considered specifically is how images
A Fractal Dimensional Analysis on the Cloud Shape Parameters of Cumulus over Land
Abstract High-resolution Landsat thematic mapper image data were employed in the present study to estimate the influence of regional wind systems on the macrophysical properties of cumulus clouds,
Fractal dimension of rainbands over Hilly terrain
SummaryThe fractal geometry of nature has been discerned in a bewildering variety of places. Perhaps the most fundamental property is the existence of structure at almost every space or time scale.
A simple and fractal analysis of the European on-line network for airborne radioactivity monitoring
We introduce two simple descriptors and use the fractal dimension to characterize the capability of a monitoring network to either ‘spot’, ‘delineate’ or ‘track’ a pollution cloud moving across a


The kinetic energy spectrum in the free atmosphere—1 second to 5 years
An energy spectrum of wind speed at altitudes from 3 to 20 km is constructed from rawinsonde and aircraft data originating in the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. Most of the observations are concentrated
Atmospheric Diffusion Shown on a Distance-Neighbour Graph
If the diffusivity K of a substance whose mass per volume of atmosphere is χ be defined by an equation of Fick’s type ū ∂ χ /∂ x + v - ∂ χ /∂ y + w - ∂ χ /∂ z + ∂ χ /∂ t = ∂/∂ x (K ∂ χ /∂ x ) + ∂/∂ y
Relative Dispersion of Constant–Level Balloons in the 200–mb General Circulation
Abstract The EOLE experiment with 480 constant–volume balloons distributed over the Southern Hemisphere at about the 200–nib level, has provided a unique set of trajectories of tagged particles in
Turbulent Characteristics of Some Canadian Cumulus Clouds
Abstract The turbulent characteristics of 17 Canadian cumulus clouds have been documented using the measurements from a specially instrumented T-33 aircraft. Most of the 33 cloud penetrations were
Theory of Homogeneous Turbulence
Abstract A power-spectrum analysis of horizontal wind speed is made over a wide range of frequencies by piecing together various portions of the spectrum. There appear to be two major eddy-energy
Evidence far a k−5/3 Law Inertial Range in Mesoscale Two-Dimensional Turbulence
  • K. Gage
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • 1979
Abstract The observational evidence for k−5/3 law behavior in the atmospheric kinetic energy spectrum is reviewed. This evidence includes the results of atmospheric wind variability studies and the
submarine oxidation on the maceral and TOC contents. A preliminary palynological investigation also has been conducted on a low-diversity palynoflora observed during maceral analysis
  • 1981
The intrinsic resolution of the satellite sensor is 6.4 km, but the data available on magnetic tape were sampled at 4.8 km to be compatible with the data from the higher resolution visible sensor