Are you sure about that? Eliciting confidence ratings may influence performance on Raven's progressive matrices

  title={Are you sure about that? Eliciting confidence ratings may influence performance on Raven's progressive matrices},
  author={Kit S. Double and Damian Patrick Birney},
  journal={Thinking \& Reasoning},
  pages={190 - 206}
ABSTRACT Confidence ratings (CR) have often been integrated into reasoning and intelligence tasks as a means for assessing meta-reasoning processes. Although it is often assumed that eliciting these judgements throughout reasoning tasks has no effect on the underlying performance outcomes, this is yet to be established empirically. The current study examines whether eliciting CR from participants during a fluid-reasoning task influences their performance and how this effect is moderated by… Expand
Reactivity to confidence ratings in older individuals performing the latin square task
Confidence ratings (CR) are often used to evaluate the metacognitive processes that occur during reasoning and problem solving. Typically CR are elicited with the assumption that they do not affectExpand
Do confidence ratings prime confidence?
It is shown that rephrasing CR to remove the word ‘confident’ neutralises reactivity, which suggests that reactivity may represent a significant problem for researchers using CR, but rephRasing CR may remedy these concerns in relatively simple fashion. Expand
A meta-analysis and systematic review of reactivity to judgements of learning
The results indicate that researchers should be aware that eliciting JoL may well influence participants’ underlying encoding processes, especially when using related word pairs or word lists. Expand
Reactivity to Measures of Metacognition
A review of the evidence that measures of metacognition, namely think-aloud protocols, judgments of learning, and confidence ratings, are reactive is provided and a tentative framework for studying reactivity is proposed that integrates cue processing accounts of reactivity with existing models of metACognition. Expand
Investigating memory reactivity with a within-participant manipulation of judgments of learning: support for the cue-strengthening hypothesis.
Positive reactivity is found for both related and unrelated pairs and there is no evidence that learners make qualitative changes in their reported strategy use when judging pairs, supporting the cue-strengthening hypothesis. Expand
Judgments of learning (JOLs) selectively improve memory depending on the type of test
Data from a meta-analysis of these experiments indicate that JOL reactivity depends on the type of final test, with reactivity most likely to occur when the final test is sensitive to the same cues used to inform JOLs. Expand
The Interplay Between Self-evaluation, Goal Orientation, and Self-efficacy on Performance and Learning
It is suggested that selfevaluation interacts with self-efficacy to modify participants’ goals, specifically CR appear to shift individuals high in self- efficacy from a mastery goal to a performance goal. Expand
The Effect of Confidence Rating on a Primary Visual Task
The findings demonstrate an effect of confidence rating on the formation of processing and response strategies, which granted participants significant benefits in later performance. Expand
Metacognition-related regions modulate the reactivity effect of confidence ratings on perceptual decision-making
The results showed that DCR+ was associated with longer decision response times (RTs) and higher accuracy than DCR-. Expand
Metacognitive hindsight bias
It is highlighted that in social contexts, recall of confidence in hindsight is more consistent with answers’ accuracy than confidence initially was, thus dissociating these two biases. Expand


Self-confidence and performance on tests of cognitive abilities
Abstract This study investigates individual differences in confidence judgments made by subjects on the accuracy of their answers to psychological test items. A measure of reasoning ability (theExpand
The Role of Individual Differences in the Accuracy of Confidence Judgments
The present results suggest that there are multiple causes of miscalibration, which current models of over- and underconfidence fail to encompass. Expand
What are confidence judgments made of? Students' explanations for their confidence ratings and what that means for calibration
Abstract Although calibration has been widely studied, questions remain about how best to capture confidence ratings, how to calculate continuous variable calibration indices, and on what exactlyExpand
How to Gain Eleven IQ Points in Ten Minutes: Thinking Aloud Improves Raven's Matrices Performance in Older Adults
  • Mark C. Fox, N. Charness
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2010
In the replication experiment, 30 older adults performed the Raven's Matrices and three other tasks to replicate and extend the findings of the initial study, which revealed that thinking aloud improves older adult performance on a short form of the Ravens' Matrices but did not affect other tasks. Expand
When asking the question changes the ultimate answer: Metamemory judgments change memory.
The results suggest that judgments of learning are partially constructed in response to the measurement question, and places them in the company of other reactive verbal reporting methods, counseling researchers to consider incorporating control groups, creating alternative scales, and exploring other verbalReporting methods. Expand
Self-confidence and metacognitive processes
This paper examines the status of Self-confidence trait. Two studies strongly suggest that Self-confidence is a component of metacognition. In the first study, participants (N=132) were administeredExpand
Using the past to predict the future
Results suggest that RCJs and JOLs are both based on retrievability, but that participants use their memory differently when making J OLs, suggesting that the JOL task helps to improve people’s learning of the items. Expand
Judgments of learning as memory modifiers.
The present research addressed the accuracy of this assumption and tested a possible account--based on aspects of Koriat's cue-utilization approach to JOLs and de Winstanley, Bjork, and Bjork's (1996) transfer-appropriate multifactor account of generation effects--for why the mere act of making J OLs might enhance later memory for the information so judged. Expand
Do procedures for verbal reporting of thinking have to be reactive? A meta-analysis and recommendations for best reporting methods.
Findings based on nearly 3,500 participants show that the "think-aloud" effect size is indistinguishable from zero and that this procedure remains nonreactive even after statistically controlling additional factors such as task type (primarily visual or nonvisual). Expand
Measuring memory monitoring with judgements of retention (JORs)
It is suggested that, much like forget-framed JOLs, JORs may bring different information—such as memory failure—to mind, and the inferential mechanisms underlying metacognitive monitoring with J OLs extends to monitoring when measured with J ORs. Expand