Are viruses associated with human breast cancer? Scrutinizing the molecular evidence

  title={Are viruses associated with human breast cancer? Scrutinizing the molecular evidence},
  author={Deepti Joshi and Gertrude Case Buehring},
  journal={Breast Cancer Research and Treatment},
  • D. Joshi, G. Buehring
  • Published 25 January 2012
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
The three viruses most studied as possible causes of human breast cancer are mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences (MMTV-LS), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and oncogenic (high risk) types of human papilloma virus (HPV). The first step in fulfilling traditional criteria for inferring that a cancer is caused by a virus is to demonstrate the virus in the affected tissue. Molecular techniques, compared to host antibody assessment and immunohistochemistry, are the most definitive in establishing… 

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