Are the Majority of Children With Autism Mentally Retarded? : A Systematic Evaluation of the Data

  title={Are the Majority of Children With Autism Mentally Retarded? : A Systematic Evaluation of the Data},
  author={Meredyth Goldberg Edelson},
  journal={Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities},
  • M. G. Edelson
  • Published 2006
  • Psychology
  • Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
There are frequent claims in the literature that a majority of children With autism are mentally retarded (MR). The present study examined the evidence used as the basis for these claims, revieWing 215 articles published betWeen 1937 and 2003. Results indicated 74% of the claims came from nonempirical sources, 53% of Which never traced back to empirical data. Most empirical evidence for the claims Was published 25 to 45 years ago and Was often obtained utilizing developmental or adaptive scales… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Parental reports on the prevalence of co-occurring intellectual disability among children with autism spectrum disorders
Abstract Limited evidence suggests that the prevalence of mental retardation (MR) – now called “intellectual disability” (ID) – in ASD ranges between 25.8% and 58.5%, with co-occurrence in 66–70% ofExpand
Autism in adults with severe intellectual disability: An empirical study of symptom presentation
It appears that adults with ID and autism evince a distinct pattern of impairment when compared to controls with ID alone. Expand
The Use of Computerized Cognitive Assessment with Children with Autism
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a rapidly increasing category of diagnosis in the United States today; however, little is definitively known about the cognitive abilities of individuals with ASDExpand
Detecting Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children With Intellectual Disability: Which DSM-IV-TR Criteria Are Most Useful?
The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in older children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) is challenging because of overlap in symptomatology and the high comorbidity of theseExpand
Differential Diagnosis of Hispanic Children Referred for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Complex Issues
A decision-tree for the diagnosis of children with and without ASDs with comorbid disorders was developed and indicated significant differences in some characteristics of the children in the sample. Expand
Cognitive Skills of Young Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the BSID-III
While language skills in children with ASD were more significantly delayed than language Skills in children without ASD, there was less discrepancy in the cognitive skills of children with and without ASD. Expand
A Comparison of Social Skills Profiles in Intellectually Disabled Adults With and Without ASD
The results support the notions that social impairment remains a distinct feature of ASD in adults with ID, that autism and PDD-NOS are two conditions on the same spectrum, and that this spectrum is relevant for adults withID. Expand
Does Parent Report of Behavior Differ Across ADOS-G Classifications: Analysis of Scores from the CBCL and GARS
Investigation of the usefulness of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale and Child Behavior Checklist suggests that the CBCL is a useful behavioral checklist for screening ASDs. Expand
Psychometric properties of a new measure to assess autism spectrum disorder in DSM-5.
This article presents preliminary psychometric properties of a new 45-item scale, the Coolidge Autistic Symptoms Survey (CASS), designed to differentiate between children within the autism spectrumExpand
Predictors of Ascertainment of Autism Spectrum Disorders Across Nine US Communities
Characteristics of children identified by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network suggest disparities in access to clinical services with the schools providing crucial services to many families, and lower educational attainment of adults in census blocks of residence of education-only cases suggests disparities in Access to Clinical services. Expand


The prevalence of early childhood autism: comparison of administrative and epidemiological studies.
The results of surveys and inquiries to identify autistic children, carried out in England and Wales, the U.S.A. and Denmark, are compared and inquiries that counted diagnosed cases only or relied upon local authority records produced much lower prevalence rates for the autistic syndrome. Expand
Infantile autism reviewed: a decade of research.
The overwhelming evidence suggests that te treatment of choice for maximal benefit to autistic children is a systematic, intrusive behavioral/educational approach, and the typical prognostic picture is poor in terms of achieving self-supportive adulthood. Expand
Cognitive abilities and disabilities in infantile autism: A review
  • M. Prior
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of abnormal child psychology
  • 1979
The current evidence is considered to support a hypothesis concerning abnormal hemisphere functioning in this group of children and it is suggested that future research should be particularly concerned with controlling for developmental influences on performance, and with investigation of the higher functioning autistic children who are less governed by retardation factors. Expand
The epidemiology of autism: a review.
  • E. Fombonne
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Psychological medicine
  • 1999
Based on recent surveys, a minimum estimate of 18.7/10000 for all forms of pervasive developmental disorders was derived, which outlines the needs in special services for a large group of children. Expand
Language, social, and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation
  • L. Wing
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1981
It is hypothesized that the socially impaired lack certain abilities that are inborn in normal children and the sociable mentally retarded: namely, the capacity to produce and monitor the normal speciesspecific preverbal sounds, the drive to explore the environment and form concepts to explain experiences, and the ability to recognize that other human beings are of special interest and importance. Expand
Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Ten years ago, we presented a review of the growing body of research developing on the diagnosis, understanding, and treatment of autism (Rutter, 1978; Schopler, 1978). The definition of autismExpand
Prevalence of infantile autism in four French regions
A survey conducted in four French regions identified a sample of 154 autistic children born in the birth cohorts 1972 and 1976, finding an elevated incidence of epilepsy and higher rates among the most retarded subjects and those with perinatal antecedents. Expand
Early developmental backgrounds of autistic and mentally retarded children. Future research directions.
  • M. Konstantareas
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Psychiatric clinics of North America
  • 1986
A brief account of the main diagnostic distinctions between autism and mental retardation is provided, which serves as the basis for reviewing available evidence on possible commonalities andExpand
Autism in children with congenital rubella
  • S. Chess
  • Medicine
  • Journal of autism and childhood schizophrenia
  • 1971
It is argued that these data support the concept of organic causation of the syndrome of autism and are compared with that found in two epidemiological studies and also with the rate indicated by other centers studying rubella children. Expand
Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.
The authors' results suggest that rates of PDD are higher than previously reported, and attention is nevertheless drawn to the important needs of a substantial minority of preschool children. Expand