Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract?

  title={Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract?},
  author={Richard M. Sharpe and Niels E. Skakkebaek},
  journal={The Lancet},
Disturbances of Sperm Maturation and Minipuberty: Is There a Connection?
It is hypothesized that prolonged exposure of the developing male to exogenous estrogens could reduce Sertoli cell number and thus reduce sperm output (and sperm counts) in adult life.
Potential Impact of The Environment on The Male Reproductive Function: The Example of Cryptorchidism
Being small for gestational age seems to be the main risk factor for cryptorchidism, and it has been hypothesized that they are all signs of a developmental disturbance called testicular dysgenesis syndrome.
Dietary oestrogens and male fertility potential
Studies into the safety of phytoestrogens are urgently needed either to allay fears or increase awareness of the effects of the modern diet on future fertility.
Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function.
This work presents its view of the emerging role of Leydig cell dysfunction with subsequent decreased testosterone levels in the pathogenesis of testicular dysgenesis syndrome, a spectrum of disorders originating in early foetal life.
Fetal and perinatal influence of xenoestrogens on testis gene expression.
The studies have demonstrated that administration of high levels of oestrogen can affect gene expression in the testis early in life and are consistent with negative feedback by oestrogens on pituitary production of FSH resulting in retarded maturation of seminiferous tubules and reduced Sertoli cell numbers.
Male Reproductive Status and Its Relationship With Man-Made, Hormone-Disrupting Substances: Studies in Flanders, Belgium
Thousands of man-made chemicals have been released into the environment in vast quantities since the chemical industry began to boom in the 1950’s and these chemicals are exposed to humans and wildlife through their nutrition, the air, the water and, more importantly, through the placenta during foetal development.
Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies.
The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular
Declining sperm count and fertility in males: an epidemiological controversy.
These findings are inconsistent with the reports that male infertility rates have remained constant during the past 3 decades, and the increased number of men seeking consultation on infertility may only be the result of the tendency of couples to delay pregnancy and the increase availability of treatment.
Is male infertility a forerunner to cancer?
The identification and examination of these common points of origin supports the integration of testicular cancer screenings into the routine evaluation of infertile men.
Environmental Toxicants Induced Male Reproductive Disorders: Identification and Mechanism of Action
“Several observations on poor trends in Male Reproductive Health have been reported during the last Decades, including the increasing prevalence of Testicular Cancer, Low and possibly declining Semen Quality, high and possibly rising frequencies of Cryptorchidism and malformation of the Penis.


The effect of in utero ethinyl oestradiol exposure on the risk of cryptorchid testis and testicular teratoma in mice.
Epidemiological findings indicate that both cryptorchid testis and testicular germ cell cancer may be a result of high maternal oestrogen levels early in pregnancy, and mice susceptible to testicular teratomas are targeted.
Gonadal dysgenesis induced by prenatal exposure to ethinyl estradiol in mice.
Findings suggest that in male fetuses ethinyl estradiol affects Sertoli cell differentiation resulting in suppression of Müllerian inhibiting factor, which seems likely to affect the intimate contact between follicular cells and oocytes to cause degeneration of primordial follicles.
Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for testicular cancer.
The findings for birth weight and abnormal uterine bleeding suggest that significant compromise of the normal maternal-fetal environment may be associated with subsequent increase in risk of testicular cancer.
Effect of ethinyl estradiol on the differentiation of mouse fetal testis.
It is suggested that prenatal exposure to EE before testicular differentiation affects tubular formation, the proliferation of fetal Sertoli cells, and Leydig cell differentiation, resulting in disturbances of spermatogenesis.
Abnormal sexual development in transgenic mice chronically expressing Müllerian inhibiting substance
The results suggest that MIS has several distinct roles in mammalian sexual development, including feminization of the external genitalia, impairment of Wolffian duct development, and undescended testes in transgenic males.
Maternal and gestational factors affecting the risk of cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia.
  • R. Depue
  • Medicine
    International journal of epidemiology
  • 1984
A common mechanism for production of these malformations and testis cancer is proposed which is mediated by testicular hypoplasia induced by excess exogenous or endogenous oestrogen in the mother.
Early postnatal exposure to PCBs: Sperm function in rats
It appears that early postnatal exposure to PCBs affects ability of sperm to fertilize eggs but not production, morphology or motility of epididymal sperm.
Comparison of oestrone sulphate concentrations in mammary secretions during lactogenesis and lactation in dairy ruminants
The results support the idea that oestrone sulphate in mammary secretions could be used as a predictor of the onset of parturition in dairy animals.