Are nomograms needed in the management of bladder cancer?

  title={Are nomograms needed in the management of bladder cancer?},
  author={Carvell T. Nguyen and Andrew J. Stephenson and Michael W. Kattan},
  journal={Urologic oncology},
  volume={28 1},
Bladder cancer has a remarkably variable natural history. Noninvasive, low-grade (TaLG) lesions have a propensity to recur but pose little threat to the patient's longevity. Non-muscle-invasive, high-grade (Ta-TIS-T1HG) lesions can be effectively treated with intravesical BCG, but a subset may progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Muscle-invasive cancers (T2-T3) are uniformly lethal if inadequately treated, and subsets of patients benefit from perioperative chemotherapy and… CONTINUE READING