Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?

  title={Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?},
  author={Timothy A. Judge and Amir Erez and Joyce E. Bono and Carl J. Thoresen},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={83 3},
The authors present results of 4 studies that seek to determine the discriminant and incremental validity of the 3 most widely studied traits in psychology-self-esteem, neuroticism, and locus of control-along with a 4th, closely related trait-generalized self-efficacy. Meta-analytic results indicated that measures of the 4 traits were strongly related. Results also demonstrated that a single factor explained the relationships among measures of the 4 traits. The 4 trait measures display… 


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  • R. Smith
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1989
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