Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms.

  title={Are leader stereotypes masculine? A meta-analysis of three research paradigms.},
  author={Anne M. Koenig and Alice H. Eagly and Abigail A. Mitchell and Tiina Ristikari},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={137 4},
This meta-analysis examined the extent to which stereotypes of leaders are culturally masculine. The primary studies fit into 1 of 3 paradigms: (a) In Schein's (1973) think manager-think male paradigm, 40 studies with 51 effect sizes compared the similarity of male and leader stereotypes and the similarity of female and leader stereotypes; (b) in Powell and Butterfield's (1979) agency-communion paradigm, 22 studies with 47 effect sizes compared stereotypes of leaders' agency and communion; and… 

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