Are gender effects being neglected in schizophrenia research?

  title={Are gender effects being neglected in schizophrenia research?},
  author={Otto F. Wahl and Judy Hunter},
  journal={Schizophrenia bulletin},
  volume={18 2},
Research on schizophrenia published in four professional journals--Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, and American Journal of Psychiatry--over a 5-year period from January 1985 through December 1989 was examined for gender composition of subject samples and gender analyses of findings. Results indicate a continued predominance of male subjects in schizophrenia research, with males outnumbering females two to one, and frequent… 
Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV.
The potential for bias in sampling and biases within the diagnostic criteria themselves are illustrated for a wide variety of mental disorder diagnoses, and suggestions for research to address them are provided.
Gender differences in schizophrenia: The need for a psychosocial and formulation based analysis?
Summary A review of the literature on gender differences in people who experience schizophrenia identifies some interesting differences between women and men in terms of age of onset, premorbid
Improving Our Science in Psychosis Research with a Sex- and Gender-Based Analysis
The World Health Organization has identified gender as a “critical determinant of mental health and mental illness.” In the schizophrenia field, however, while there has been an increased focus on
Improving Our Science in Research with Sex- and Gender-Based Analysis
WHO has identified gender as a “critical determinant of mental health and mental illness”. In the psychosis field, however, while there has been an increased focus on sex differences, little is known
Deficit schizophrenia, gender and social class of origin
The results suggest that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is gender-specific and may connect with genetic penetrance coupled with prenatal experiences.
The Role of Gender in the Formation of Manifest Schizophrenic Psychoses in Adolescents
  • R. Sokolov
  • Psychology
    Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology
  • 2012
Gender influences on the occurrence and course of schizophrenia were studied by comparing two groups of 70 adolescents – girls and boys with manifest schizophrenic psychosis. This revealed intergroup
Gender differences in family attitudes about schizophrenia.
Analysis of the BPRS data from the in-patient to the out-patient periods suggested variations by patient gender which may explain some of the differences in relatives' affective attitudes.
Gender Differences in the Experience of Psychosis
Background Gender differences in the presentation and course of psychosis are well documented. However, there is a lack of research which examines gender differences in the subjective experience
Gender differences in patients with schizophrenia and substance abuse.
Many differences consistent with those found in people with single disorders are found: dually diagnosed women had more social contact and fewer legal problems but greater problems with victimization and medical illness compared withdually diagnosed men.
Sex: an imperfect marker of gender.
  • R. Lewine
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Schizophrenia bulletin
  • 1994
Why precise terminology is important is reviewed and why adoption of the term "sex" in reference to comparisons based on the demographic categories of female and male and the terms "gender" in relation to comparisons of femaleness and maleness are urged in the study of schizophrenia.


Gender and the expression of schizophrenia.
Findings indicated that schizophrenic women not only expressed more impulsivity and affective symptomatology than did men, but their psychotic symptoms covaried consistently with the expression of impulsivity, anger and other affective symptoms.
Influence of gender in schizophrenia as related to other psychopathological syndromes.
It is argued that these differential characteristics derive from the differential hemispheric organization of the male and female brain--which also determines the male susceptibility to other psychopathological syndromes such as psychopathy and sexual deviations as well as the excess in women of schizoaffective states, affective disorders, and late-onset schizophrenia.
Effect of diagnostic criteria on the ratio of male to female schizophrenic patients.
This study analyzed the effect of using six different diagnostic systems (varying in their stringency) on the male to female ratio of schizophrenia among 387 inpatients to find that diagnostic criteria representing a broad conceptualization of schizophrenia consistently yielded equal rates of schizophreniaamong men and women.
Gender and the course of schizophrenia: differences in treated outcomes.
When confounding factors were controlled for, schizophrenic women showed a better course of hospital treatment, experienced a shorter length of hospital stay, and survived longer in the community after their first hospital admission.
Gender and Schizophrenia: An Introduction and Synthesis of Findings
The last 10 years of schizophrenia research have indicated a renewed interest in understanding gender differences in schizophrenia. The purpose of this special edition of the Schizophrenia Bulletin
Gender differences in affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic disorders.
Gender differences in the clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of chronic DSM-III Axis I psychotic inpatients from the Chestnut Lodge followup study highlight the importance of analyzing data by gender in studies of the psychotic disorders.
The role of gender in identifying subtypes of schizophrenia: a latent class analytic approach.
Schizophrenic women were more likely to express a form of the illness characterized by dysphoria, persecutory delusions, and a higher family morbidity risk for schizophrenia than schizophrenic men, suggesting gender differences in the prevalence of the subtype.
Perceived sex differences in inpatients' psychopathology: some preliminary findings.
Staff described females as greater management problems, showing more emotion, being more troublesome and uncooperative, having poorer contact with reality, and being less willing to participate in social interactions than their male counterparts.
The Concept of schizophrenia : historical perspectives
Classical concepts of schizophrenia, Guiseppe Roccatagliata schizophrenia in the medieval period of history, John G.Howells concepts of schizophrenia 1600-1860, Mark J.Sedler the German classical
Gender, Premorbid Social Functioning, and Long-term Outcome in DSM-III Schizophrenia
The present study examined the relationships among premorbid social functioning, gender, and long-term outcome in a group of 82 subjects (41 men and 41 women) who were retrospectively rediagnosed to