Are births underreported in rural China? Manipulation of statistical records in response to China’s population policies

@article{Merli2011AreBU,
  title={Are births underreported in rural China? Manipulation of statistical records in response to China’s population policies},
  author={M. Giovanna Merli and Adrian E. Raftery},
  journal={Demography},
  year={2011},
  volume={37},
  pages={109-126}
}
Under the current family planning policy in China, the criterion for evaluating all parties involved in the birth planning system provides an incentive for everyone to see that the policy is met, either in reality through strict enforcement of family planning regulations, or statistically through manipulation of statistical records. We investigate underreporting of births in four rural counties of northern China, using data from a 1992 sample survey featuring a reproductive history. To clarify… Expand

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

Child Underreporting, Fertility, and Sex Ratio Imbalance in China
TLDR
A new triangulation of evidence indicates that about 19% of children at ages 0–4 were unreported in the 2000 census, more than double that of the 1990 census, and suggests that China’s fertility in the late 1990s (and perhaps beyond) was below officially adjusted levels. Expand
Child Underreporting, Fertility, and Sex Ratio
Child underreporting is often neglected in studies of fertility and sex ratio imbalance in China. To improve estimates of these measures, I use intercensal comparisons to identify a rise inExpand
Low fertility and concurrent birth control policy in China
Abstract China’s one-child policy, introduced in the late 1970s, has been in effect for over three decades. This article reviews China’s low fertility rate and the implementation of this stringentExpand
China’s excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey
TLDR
China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades, and enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios. Expand
The Re-emergence of “Missing Women” in China
Empirical evidence suggests that close to 100 million women are “missing” worldwide. We revisit the empirical evidence for China, the country with the most missing women. Nearly ten million girlsExpand
The Limits (and Human Costs) of Population Policy: Fertility Decline and Sex Selection in China under Mao
The vast majority of China’s fertility decline predates the famous One Child Policy – and instead occurred under its predecessor, the Later, Longer, Fewer (LLF) fertility control policy. In thisExpand
Delayed Registration and Identifying the “Missing Girls” in China
Abstract In 2010, according to the sixth Chinese census, the sex ratio at birth (SRB) was 118 males for every 100 females. The global SRB average is about 105. Thus, the gap between 118 and 105 isExpand
China's Missing Children: Political Barriers to Citizenship through the Household Registration System
Abstract Approximately 13 million Chinese lack hukou, the formal household registration. This prevents them from claiming full citizenship rights, including social welfare, formal identity documentsExpand
China’s Demographic Future Under the New Two-Child Policy
China implemented the two-child policy in 2016, however, potential impacts of this new policy on its population reality have not been adequately understood. Using population census data and 1%Expand
Hide the Girls! One-Child Policy and Its Educational Consequences on the 'Unwanted' Births
Abstract To earn a quota for a boy under the one-child policy (OCP), some Chinese families intentionally underreport births of girls or delay their hukou registration, which can have subsequentExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES
Underreporting of Births and Infant Deaths in Rural China: Evidence from Field Research in One County of Northern China *
This study examined the nature of underreporting of births and infant deaths in the mostly rural Ciqixian district of Zibo city Shandong province China. Data were compared between a family planningExpand
Nonreporting of births or nonreporting of pregnancies? Some evidence from four rural counties in North China
TLDR
Data from a recent sample survey featuring a retrospective pregnancy history reveal that at least in the first pregnancy, there is no evidence of elevated female infant mortality or of high numbers of stillbirths, but that reported sex ratios are unusually high. Expand
Determinants of induced abortion and their policy implications in four counties in north China.
TLDR
A retrospective survey conducted in four counties in North China in 1991-92 shows that the probability of aborting a pregnancy is strongly related to parity, and almost universal abortion is shown after the second live birth. Expand
Implementation of a demographic and contraceptive surveillance system in four counties in north China
This paper details efforts to implement a demographic and contraceptive surveillance system in four counties in North China. These counties are taking part in a large-scale field experiment involvingExpand
Parity progression and birth intervals in China: the influence of policy in hastening fertility decline.
Period parity progression ratios and interval distributions for China were estimated using parity specific birth probabilities and time since last birth a method used by Henry. The objective was toExpand
Fertility policy and implementation in China, 1986-88.
TLDR
Despite changes in leadership and degree of heavy-handedness in enforcement of the one-child policy between the early 1980s and 1988 throughout this period the basic elements of Chinas family planning program have not changed. Expand
Is Fertility in China in 1991-92 Far Below Replacement Level?*
In this article it is shown that the extremely low fertility rates reported in China – well below replacement level – derived from the Chinese Survey in 1992 are false. Serious under-reporting ofExpand
Progression to second birth in China: a study of four rural counties.
TLDR
Second births were more common in Huasheng due to the permission granted to wealthy and educated couples to have a second child as long as the fine was paid, and higher economic status reduced the hazard of a second birth. Expand
Below Replacement Fertility in China? A Close Look at Recent Evidence
This paper presents detailed evidence on fertility levels and trends in China from a survey conducted in 1992 by the State Family Planning Commission. The evidence is analyzed internally and byExpand
Is the Chinese family planning program "tightening up"?
The Chinese official policies on family planning (FP) have not been tightened at least for the time being as compared with the period 1984-86. The messages from the 1988 meetings of the PopulationExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...