Are archaebacteria merely derived ‘prokaryotes’?

  title={Are archaebacteria merely derived ‘prokaryotes’?},
  author={Carl R. Woese and Ramesh C. Gupta},
The archaebacteria are a group of prokaryotes which seem as distinct from the true bacteria (eubacteria) as they are from eukaryotes1–4. The evidence on which this conclusion rests is of two types: genotypic (quantitative)—that is, comparative sequence studies, and phenotypic (qualitative)—that is, differences in various organismal characteristics. The differences between archaebacteria and true bacteria are so great, both quantitatively and qualitatively, that the two bacterial groups should… 
Thermoproteales—a third order of thermoacidophilic archaebacteria
It is shown that Thermoproteus tenax, a novel anaerobic, sulphur-respiring, multiform thermoacidophilic archaebacterium isolated from solfataric springs of Iceland, represents a third order of the thermo Acidophilic branch ofarchaebacteria and suggests a specific relationship between thermo acidophilic Archaeb bacteria and primitive eukaryotes such as yeast.
Evolutionary and functional genomics of the Archaea.
Evolution of the Archaea: emerging views on origins and phylogeny.
Origins of the nucleate organisms II.
  • A. McQuade
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Bio Systems
  • 1983
The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification.
  • T. Cavalier-smith
  • Biology
    International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology
  • 2002
The origin from a drastically altered actinobacterium of neomura, and the immediately subsequent simultaneous origins of archaebacteria and eukaryotes, are the most extreme and important cases of quantum evolution since cells began.


The Archaebacteria and eukaryotic origins
This work presents an alternative view, that the Archaebacteria were derived from other bacteria and contain the ancestor of a cell which engulfed others, eventually to become the first eukaryote.
Archaebacterial elongation factor is ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin
It is reported here that diphtheria toxin also catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of archaebacterial elongation factors, meaning that these factors have to be assigned to the EF2 type; it is assumed that the ADp- ribosylatable structure arising so early in evolution is of fundamental importance for the elongation process.
Evolutionary relationship between Halobacterium cutirubrum and eukaryotes determined by use of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as phylogenetic probes.
Results suggest that phylogenetically H. cutirubrum is more closely related to the eukaryotes than to the E. coli or R. spheroides, and that prokaryotes related to these two groups are more related than to each other.
On the prokaryotic nature of red algal chloroplasts.
  • L. Bonen, W. Doolittle
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1975
The sequences of oligonucleotides released by T1 ribonuclease digestion of 32-P-labeled 16S and 18S ribosomal RNAs from a marine species of Porphyridium have been determined, providing a measure of the evolutionary distance separating existing chloroplasts from contemporary bacteria and blue-green algae.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.
Purified DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is composed of 10 different subunits, one of which is present as four copies, and the temperature dependence of the transcription rate is characteristic for the template.
Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms
  • C. Woese, G. Fox
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
A phylogenetic analysis based upon ribosomal RNA sequence characterization reveals that living systems represent one of three aboriginal lines of descent: the eubacteria, comprising all typical bacteria, the archaebacteria, and the urkaryotes, now represented in the cytoplasmic component of eukaryotic cells.
Paracoccus denitrificans and the evolutionary origin of the mitochondrion
It is demonstrated that Paracoccus denitrificans resembles a mitochondrion more closely than do other bacteria, in that it effectively assembles in a single organism those features of the
Diphytanyl and dibiphytanyl glycerol ether lipids of methanogenic archaebacteria.
The occurrence of both types of isopranyl glycerol ethers in methanogenic bacteria supports the proposal that they have a close genealogical relationship to the extremely halophilic and thermoacidophilic bacteria.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Halobacterium halobium.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase core enzyme was isolated from Halobacterium halobium. The purification is based on the finding that the enzyme is stable in 40% (v/v) glycerol, in the presence of 0.05 M
Phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas.
The phylogenetic relationships between the mycoplasmas and bacteria have been established from a comparative analysis of their 16S rRNA oligonucleotide catalogs, showing that Mycoplasma arose by degenerative evolution, as a deep branch of the subline of clostridial ancestry that led to Bacillus and Lactobacillus.