Are Women Evaluated More Favorably Than Men?: An Analysis of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Emotions

@article{Eagly1991AreWE,
  title={Are Women Evaluated More Favorably Than Men?: An Analysis of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Emotions},
  author={Alice H. Eagly and Antonio Mladinic and Stacey Otto},
  journal={Psychology of Women Quarterly},
  year={1991},
  volume={15},
  pages={203 - 216}
}
In an experiment in which male and female respondents evaluated the social category of women or men on several types of measures, analysis of respondents' attitudes toward the sexes and of the evaluative content of their beliefs established that they evaluated women more favorably than men. In addition, analysis of respondents' emotional reactions toward women and men did not yield evidence of negativity toward women at the emotional level. Nor did it appear that respondents' very positive… Expand

Tables from this paper

The effect of attitude toward women on the relative individuation of women and men is mediated by perceived gender subgroups.
TLDR
As predicted, relative number of subgroups but not differential familiarity mediated the relationship between attitudes and relative individuation of men and women. Expand
Are People Prejudiced Against Women? Some Answers From Research on Attitudes, Gender Stereotypes, and Judgments of Competence
In contemporary research, attitudes toward women appear to be more positive than those toward men in samples of US and Canadian university students, and the evaluative content of the femaleExpand
Preferring “Housewives” To “Feminists”: Categorization and the Favorability of Attitudes Toward Women
Four studies are described outlining the favorability of attitudes toward women. In Study 1, participants indicated their attitudes toward women and men and their construal of the term “women.” TheExpand
Attitude toward women's societal roles moderates the effect of gender cues on target individuation.
TLDR
6 studies suggested that progressive participants were motivated to individuate women by their belief that it is important to improve the status of women and other groups low in power and by their identification with women and feminism, whereas participants with a "traditional" attitude made fewer errors for male targets. Expand
Attitude toward women's societal roles moderates the effect of gender cues on target individuation.
In 4 studies, participants read trait descriptions and formed impressions of 2 male and 2 female targets. They then attempted to recall which traits had described each target. As predicted,Expand
What's in a Label? Judgments of Feminist Men and Feminist Women
Although significant progress has been made on research concerning stereotypes of feminist women, very little is known about the stereotypes of feminist men. College students rated one of fourExpand
What Matters More—Breaking Tradition or Stereotype Content? Envious and Paternalistic Gender Stereotypes and Advertising Effectiveness
The outcomes of 2 experiments investigating the effectiveness of advertisements that use (non)traditional stereotypes of women (Experiment 1) or men (Experiment 2) are reported. Effectiveness of theExpand
What is a Feminist?
This article outlines the evaluation and stereotype of feminists, based on responses to closed-ended semantic differential traits as well as open-ended, projective responses to a hypothetical male orExpand
Social Concepts and Judgments: A Semantic Differential Analysis of the Concepts Feminist, Man, and Woman
Male and female participants (N = 274) made judgments about the social concepts of feminist, man, and woman on 63 semantic differential items. Factor analysis identified three basic dimensions termedExpand
Players and Whiners? Perceptions of Sex Stereotyping in Animé in Japan and the US
This study examined cognitive and affective responses of Japanese (N=199) and American participants (N=194) to the depiction of gender in a Japanese animé popular in both countries. As expected,Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Gender Stereotypes and Attitudes Toward Women and Men
Attitude theory is used to provide a conceptual analysis of how attitudes toward men and women relate to gender stereotypes. Consistent with this analysis, attitudes toward the sexes relatedExpand
Sex‐Role Stereotypes: A Current Appraisal
Consensus about the differing characteristics of men and women exists across groups differing in sex, age, marital status, and education. Masculine characteristics are positively valued more oftenExpand
Persistence and change in sex-role stereotypes
Persistence and change in sex-role stereotypes were examined by replicating in 1978 a study of sex-role conceptions published by Sherriffs and McKee in 1957. Results suggested that in manyExpand
The definition of sex stereotypes via the adjective check list
The Adjective Check List (ACL) was employed in the empirical definition of male and female stereotypes by 50 male and 50 female college student subjects. Judgments by male and female subjectsExpand
Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label.
Various components of gender stereotypes were examined in three studies to determine their interrelationship and their influence relative to gender label. In the first two experiments, male andExpand
Level of categorization and content of gender stereotypes.
Stereotypic conceptions of gender may be structured, as has typically been assumed, in terms of the general concepts of “man” and “woman.” Alternatively, people may view males and females in terms ofExpand
Stereotype, Prejudice, and Discrimination: Changing Conceptions in Theory and Research
Readers of the chapters on prejudice and discrimination in the three editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology (Harding, Kutner, Proshansky, & Chein, 1954; Harding, Proshansky, Kutner, & Chein,Expand
On the ambivalence-indifference problem in attitude theory and measurement: A suggested modification of the semantic differential technique.
This article explores the alternate meanings of attitudinal neutrality in the context of the bipolarity-reciprocal antagonism issue. Specifically, it proposes a modification of the semanticExpand
Joan McKay versus John McKay: Do gender stereotypes bias evaluations?
Etude meta-analytique des recherches ayant utilise le paradigme experimental de Goldberg (1968), dans le but d'un examen critique des conclusions sur l'evaluation plus favorable, chez les femmes, desExpand
Attributions in the Sports Pages
University of IowaThe present investigation extended the generality of attribution research byexploring several important, issues in a highly involving real-world setting inwhich attributionsExpand
...
1
2
3
...